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AN 



INTRODUCTION 



TO THE 



MAKING OF LATIN. 

Selected chiefly from Ellis's Exercises, and adapted 
to the Rules of Adam's Syntax. 

TO WHICH IS SUBJOINED, THE 

SECOND PART OF LYNE'S LATIN PRIMER. 



By WILLIAM BIGLOW, 

Teacher of an Academy in Salem, Maflachu{g£s<> 



Publifbed according to Aft of Congrefs. 



SALEM? 

POINTED BY JOSHUA CUSHING, FOR GUSHING' 

& A P P LETON. 

l801. 



& 



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THE CHILD'S LIBRARY: Part First, 
Containing Leifons in Spelling and Reading, 
Stops and Marks, Numbers, &c. — Part Second : con- 
taining a Selection of LefTons for Spelling, Reading 
and Speaking. By William Big low, Teacher of an 
Academy in Salem, Maiiachufetts! • 

THE ELEMENTS OF LATIN GRAMMAR ; 

abridged from Adam's Rudiments of Latin and Englilh 
Grammar, and defighed as an Introduction to that work. 
By W. Big low. 

LYNN'S LATIN PRIMER, Firft k Second Parts. 

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AN 

INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

.MAKING OF LATIN. 



CHAP. I. Rule III. 




T READ, lego, 3. 

X Thou thinkeft, cogito, 1. 
He hears, audio, 4. 
We hinder, prohibeo, 2. 
Ye fuppofe, puto, 1. 
They defend, defendo, 3. 

U^rotain, obtineo, 2. 

$aidft underftand, intelligo, 3» 

lid judge, judico, I. 
We did direct, praefcribo, 3. 
Ye did come, venio, 4. 
They did fee, video, 2. 

I have fought, qucsro, ftvl, 3. 

Thou haft found, invenio, veni, 4- 

He has departed, difcedo, ejjl y 3. 

We have affifted, fuccurfo, i, 3. 

Ye have feared, metuo, % 3. 

They have confidered, confidero, avi, 1. 

I had chofen, deligo, legi, 3. 
Thou hadft gone, eo, ivi 9 4. 
He Jiad difputed, contendo, /, 3* 
We had triumphed, triumpho, avi t 1. 
B 



z AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Ye had called back, revoco, avi, i. 
They had done, ago, egi, 3. 

I fhall leave, relinquo, iqui, 3. 
Thou wilt build, aedinco, avi, 1. 
He fhall compare, comparo, avi, u 
We will fend, mitto, iji, 3. 
Ye will pretend, iimulo, avi, 1. 
They will carry, porto, avi, 1. 

I can fupport, fuftineo, ui, 2. , 
Thou mayeit. receive, accipio, epi, 3. 
He may require, exigo, egi, 3. 
We may know, fcio, ivi, 4. 
Ye may redeem, redimo, «r/, 3. 
They can recover, recupero, avi, 1. 

I might blame, obtrecto, avi, 1 . 

Thcu wouldeft run away, profugio, ere, 3. 

He could effect, efficio, eci, 3. 

We might obey, obedio, ivi, 4. 

Ye fhould compel, cogo, coegi, 3. 

They might deliver, trado, idi, 3. 

I may have lived, vivo, vixi, 3. 
Thou mayeft have thought, exiilimo, avi, 1. 
He may have fought, confligo, ixi, 3, 
We may have defired, concupifco, ivi, 3. 
Ye may have declared, declaro, avi, 1. 
They may have forefeen, provideo, di, 2. 

I might have defended, defendo, di, 3. 
Thou mighteil have told, narro, avi, r. 
He might have doubted, dubito, avi, 1. 
We might have wept, ftzQ,jlevi, 2. 
Ye might have agreed, afTentio,j£, 4. 
They might have placed, pono, pofui, 3. 

I fhall have hoped, fpero, avi, 1. 
Thou fhalt have wifhed, opto, avi, I. 
He fhall have refuted, refuto, avi, u 



THE MAKING OF LATIN, 3 

We mall have conquered, vinco, vki % 3. 
Ye mail have received, acquire», qut/tvi, 3 . 
They fhall have obtained, impetro, avi, 1. 

See thou, video, vidt, 2. 

Let him call to, appello, av'h I. 

Afk ye, rogo, am, 1. 

Let them bind, vincio, vlnxl, 4. 

I am plundered, diripior, direptus fum, 3. 
Thou art led out, educor, eductus fum, 3. 
He is appointed, conftituor, conflitutus fum, 3. 
We are hindered, impedior, impedlius fum, 4. 
k Ye are taken, capior, capitis fum, 3. 
They are governed, regor* reel us fum, 3. 

I was carried, deportor, deportatus fum, 1. 
Thou wait fent, mittor, mffus fum, 3. 
He was appointed, conftituorj conflitutus fum, 3. 
We were acquitted, Salvor, fo/utus fum, 3. 
Ye were overcome, fuper or, fuper at us fum, 1. 
They v/ere fortified, munior, muntius fum, 4. 

I have been trufled, credor, creditus fum, 3* 
Thou hall been found, invenior, inventus fum, 4. 
He has been reconciled, concilior, concillatus fum, I. 
We have been divided, dividor, divifus fum, 3. 
Ye have been plucked up* evellor, evu/fusfum, 3. 
They have been required, poflulor, poflulatus fum, 1. 

I had been loft, amittor, amffus fum, 3. 

Thou hadft been corrupted, corrumpor, corruptus fum, 3. 

He had been condemned, condemnor, condemnatus fum, 1. 

We had been fhown, oftendor, oflenfus fum, 3, 

Ye had been adorned, ornor, omaius fum, 1. 

They had been increafed, augeor, auclus fum, 2. 

I mail be found, reperior, repertus fum, 4. 
Thou fhalt be defpifed, fpernor, fpretus fum, 2. 
He fhall be educated, educor, educatus fum, 1. 
We fhall be hanged, {uipendoTtfu/penfusfum, 3. 



4 AN INTRODUCTION TO* 

Ye will be fent for, accerfor, accerfitus fum, 4. 
They will be taught, doceor, do&us fum, 2. 

Be thou defpifed, contemnor, contemptus fum, 3. . 
Let him be avoided, fugior, fugitus fum, 3. 
Let us be bought, emor, emptus fum, 3. 
Be ye difturbed, perturbor, perturbatus fum, 1. 
Let them be prefled, premor, pre/Jus fum, 3. 

I may be defended, defendor, defenfus fum, 3. 

Thou mayeft be hidden, abdor, abditus fum, 3. 

He may be lifted up, erigor, ereBus fum, 3. 

We may be thought, putor, putatus fum, 1. 

Ye may be omitted, omittor, omijfus fum, 3. 

They can be anfwered, refpondor, refponfus fum, 3. 

I might be approved, approbor, approbatusfum, 1. 
Thou mighteft be called, appellor* appsllatus fum, 1. 
He might be lamented, deploror, dephralus fum, I. 
We might be denied, negor, negatus fum, 1. 
Ye might be believed, creior, credlius fum, 3. 
They might be prepared, pzrov, paratus fum, 1. 

I may have been invited, invitor, invltatus fum, I. 
Thou mayeil have been changed, mutor, mutatus fum, 1. 
He may have been fep'arated, fejuttgor, fcyunSus fum, 3. 
We may have been fworn, juror, juralvs fun, 1. 
Ye may have been choien, eligor, eleitus fum, 3. 
They may have been pr ailed, laudor, iuudatus fum, 1. 

I might have been laughed at, derideor, dcrtfus ftm, 2. 
Thou mighteft have been vexed, vexor, vexdtvt fum, 1. 
He might have been cut oft, refcindor, rtfctffus fum, 3. 
We might have been marked, notor, notatus fum, 1. 
Ye might have been forbidden, vetor, vetltus fim, 1 & 3, 

n't et avi. 
They might have been killed, interiicior, irierfectus fum, 3. 

I (hall have been difturbed, conturbor, conturlatzs fum, 1. 
Thou malt have been loved, diligor, d'dectusfum, 3. 
He fhall have been appointed, conftituor, conjntutus fum,^ 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 5 

We fhall have been taken care of, curor, euratusfum, I. 
Ye fhall have been deceived, f allor 9 falf us fum 9 3. 
They fhall have been left, relinquor, relictus fum 9 3. 

Be thou defpifed, contemnor, contemptus fum, 3. 
Let him be avoided, fugior 9 fugitusfum, 3. 
Be ye difturbed, perturbor, perturbatus fum> 1. 
Let them be pre/Ted, premor, prejfus fum 9 3. 

The condition pleafes, conditio, onis, 3. /. placeo, ut, 2. 

Who has fpoken ? quis, qua, quid, dico, ixi t 3. 

The caufe might be referred, caufa, a, 1 f deferor, la- 

tusy irr» 
Men may underftand, homo, inisy 3. intelligo, exi t 3. 
Death has taken away, mors, ft/, 3 /. eripio, ui f 3. 
Men lie, homo, inis, 3. mentior, thus fum, 4 dep. 
Nature requires, natura, *, if poftulo, avi, 1. 
A power is permitted, poteftas, atisy 3/. permitto, per- 

mijfus fum y 3. 
The citizens may receive, civis, is, 3 c. recipio, epi, 3. 
The miftake will be removed, error, ow, 3 m. tollor, 

fir. 3. 
The law permits, lex, egts, 3/. permitto,//?, 3. 
Pompey feared, Pompeius, i, 2 m. timeo, u:, 2. 
The law is eftablifhed, lex, egis, 3/. conftituor, conjihutus 

fum, 3. 
The money may be received, pecunia, a, 1 /. recipior, 

receptus fuw.y 3. 
They fhould be named, is, ea f id* nominor, nominates 

fumy 1. 
Honour commands, honor, or'isy 3 m. jubeo, itffi, 2. 
Rome delights, Roma, a, 1. deleclo, avi, 1. 
Carthage was deftroyed, Carthago, inis, 3. dele or, deletes 

fum y 2. 
The gates are open, porta, a 9 1 f pateo, ui> 2 neut. 
The kings threaten, rex, egis, 3 m. imminuo, us, 2. 
Let the wicked retire, impius, a, urn. fecedo, ejfi, 3. 
A fupplication was decreed, fupplicatio, onis, 3 /. decer- 

nor, deer etus fum y 3. 
I held my tongue, ego, pron. taceo, ui> 2. 
Mor^y was laid out, pecunia a, 1/. erogor, erogatusfum, 1. 
3 2 



6 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Let the reft come forth, caeter, <?, urn. prodso, ivi 3 4. 
The houfe was burnt, dorrrus, f. 2 & 4. ardeo, arfi, 2 

neut. 
An opportunity is waited for, occafio, onis 9 $f. captor, 

captatus fum, I. 
Virtue is required, virtus, «///, 3 /. requiror, requ'ifitus 

fum, 3. • 
The fault arifes, crimen, tnis> 3 n. exorior, ortus fum f 

The ienate has been convened, fenatus, its, 4 m. convo- 

cor, corroocatus /urn, 1. 
Reafon is taken away, ratio, onls, 3 /. to\\or y fublatus fum, 

irr. 
Phyficians are deceived, medicus, 1, 2 m. fallor, falfus 

/urn, 3. 
Death is avoided, mors, ortis, 3 f. fiiaior, fugtttu /urn, 3. 
Life is fought for, vita <e, 1 f. expetcr, expeti/usfum, 3. 
Galba applies, Galba <*, 1 m. prenfo, a<vi, 1. 
Friends are found, amicus, 1, 2 m. invenior, inventus 

/urn, 4. 
Pompey denied, Pompeius, J,* 2 w. nego, avi, 1. 
I have been difturbed, ego, ^>r<2/z. perturbor, perturbalus 

fum> I. 
Ambition endeavours, ambitio, o*Ar, 3^ nitor, 3 dep. 
Deducaeus has admoniihed, Deducaeus, i, 2 w. admo- 

neo, z//\ 2. 
He would difpute, ille, prcn. contendo, i, 3. 
Caecilius would demonstrate, Caecilius, /, 2 m. demonftro, 

aviy 1. 
They might fupport, ille, pr on. fuftineo, ul, 2. 
I have written, ego, pron. fcribo, ipfi, 3. 
Salluft has. experienced, Salluftius, /, 2 m. experlor, ex- 
pert us fum, 4 dep. 
We have been put off, ego, pron. rejicior, rejeftus fum, 1. 
I did propofe, ego, pron. cogito, avi 9 1. 
Caiaeta fhall be adorned, Caiaeta, a, 1 /. ornor ornatus 

Jum, 1. 
The books might be preferred, liber, /, 2 m. confervor, 

cenfirvatus fwn, I. 
Craffus has defpiied, Craflus, /, 2 m. contemno, pft, 3. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 7 

The games are approved of, ludus, /, 2 rn, accipior, accep- 

tusjum, 3. 
The womenlie down, mulier, eris, 3/. accumbo, ui, 3. 
Terentia will perfuade, Terentia, ^, 1 f. perfuadeo,^, 2. 
See thou, tu, pron. video, /, 2. 
The father has fent, pater, tris, 3 m. mitto, if, 3. 
We are delighted, ego, pron. deleclor, delegatus /urn. 
The library might be completed, bibliotheca, a, 1 f. 

conflcior, confcctus /urn, 3. 
The fitter is beloved, foror, oris, 3 f. diligor, dileclus fum, 3. 
The man has found, vir, i, 2 m. reperio, peri, 4. 
The boy will hinder, puer, /', 2 m. prohibeo, ui, 2. 
I have been alarmed, ego, pron. commoveor, commotus 

fnm, ti 
Sofitheus died, Sofltheus, /', 2 m. decedo, ejfi, 3. 
The letters fpeal:, epiftola, a, if. loquor, locutus fum, 3 

dep. , 
The confuls have difagreed, conful, nils, 3 m. diffideo, 

edi, 2. 
A rejection might be accomplifhed, reje&io, onls, 3/. fi.o, 

faclus fum, irr. 
The men fat down, homo, inis, 3 c. fedeo, 2, 2.- 
The bufmefs was referred, res, ei, 5 f. referor, relatus 

fum, irr. 
The tables might be carried about, tabula, <e, 1 f. cir- 

cumferor, circumlatus fum, irr. 
The affair is determined, res, ei, 5/. decerno, crevi, 3. 
Difhonefty triumphs, improbitas, atis, 3/. exulto, avi, 1. 
Wickednefs boafts, nequitia, <z, 1 /. glorior, atus fum,, 

l dep. 
Religion has been overthrown, religio, onis, 3/. con- 

cido, i, 3 mut. 
To diffemble is unlawful, diffimulo, avi, 1. non licet. 
To do, wrong is never ufeful, pecco, avi, 1. nunquam 

profum. 
To ftudy pleafes, fludeo, ui, 2. pla^eo, ui, 2. 
Part are difmifled, pars, artis, 3 f demitto, mifi, 3. 
The flock is fed, grex, gis, 3 c. pafco, pavi, 3. 
The common people rages, vulgus, gl, m. & n. 2. fae- . 

vio, ivi, et ii, 4. 
The flock runs, grex, gis 9 3 c. curro, cucurri, 3. 



AN INTRODUCTION TO 



CHAPTER II. 

I name no one. 

Madnefs overcame reafon. 

The brother left an heir. 

Obferve ye the event. 

Capua corrupted Hannibal. 

The mother produces a letter. 

No one accufed Sulla. 

The Sirens invite UlyfTes. 

Virtue procures friendfhip. 

Vice produces hatred. 

One good turn deferves another. 

He runs over the ftadium. 

He fung a fong.. 

He dreampt a dream. 

His voice founds like a man. 

He fmells like a goat. 

We run over the fea. 

Corydon loves Alexis. 

He has white hair. 



CHAPTER III. 

A great man had anfwered. 

A free people defired. 

One difgrace remains. 

A hateful war is at hand. 

That law commands. 

The other ranks have been freed. 

The moft noble men Jiave come. 

The greateft labour H added. 

A great error prevails. 

Your liberty is taken away. 

A fearful man obeyed.. 
No deceit is produced». 



l^HE MAKING OF LATIN. 



RULE XVIII. 

Ego, pron. nommo, avi, i. nemo, inis, 3, c. 

Amentia, <z, if vinco, id, 3. ratio, on':s, 3/. 

Frater, tris, 3 m. rclinquo, iqui, 3. hacrcs, dis, 3, c. 

Attendo, /, 3. excitas, us, 4 in. 

Capua, a, if corrumpo, upi, 3. Hannibal, alls, 3 feu 

Mater, tris, 3 f profero, protuli, irr, epiilola, a, 1 f 

Nemo, tnls, 3 c. inlimulo, avi, 1. Sulla, a, 1 w/. 

Siren, enis, 3/. invito, aw, 1. Ulyffes, is, 3 m. 

Virtus, ut\s, 3/. concilio, aw, i. amicitia, a, if 

Vitium, /, 2 n. pario, peperi, 3. odium, i, 2 «*. 

Gratia, a, 1 y. pario, gratia. 

Curro, cucurri, 3. ftadium, /', 2 tf. 

Cano, c^i«/, 3. cantilena, a, if. 

Somnio, avi, 1. fomnium, i, 2 n. 

Vox, cis, 3/. fono «i, 1. homo, inis, 3 j. 

Gleo, ui et ra/, 2. hircus, i, 2 m. 

Gurro, aequor, oris, 3 /z. 

Corydon, ardeo, arfi, 2. Alexis. 

Ille rubeo, rului, 2. capillus, i, 2 th. 



RULE II. 

Magnus, a, um, vir, iri, 2 m. refpondeo, i, 2. 

Liber, era, erum. populus, i, 2 'm% -defiderc, rtr/, i„- 

Unus, a, um, dedecus, oris, 3 tu reflo, as, i:i, 1. 

Exiciofus, a, um. bellum, r, 2 n. impendeo, /, 2. 

Is, ea, id, pron. lex, L j gis, 3/. jubeo, ajfi, 2. 

Caeter, a, um, adj. ordo, mis, 3 m. liberor, aius fum 9 1. 

Nobilis, <>, 0^"« homo, inis, 3 /?z. venio, f, 4. 

Magnus. #, ym, labor, oris, 3 ra. accedo, ^'/7, 3 «c'w/. 

Magnus, # z*m. error, oris, 3 m. verfor, atus firm, 1 dcp. 

Velter, a, um, pron, libertas, atis, 3/. tollor, fablatus fum> 

irr. 
Timidus, a, um. vir, iri, 2 m. pareo, ui, 2 neut. 
Nullus, a, um. fraus, dis, 3 f profercr, prolat us fum, irr* 



to AN INTRODUCTION TO 

The moft impudent man is chofen. 

No private letters are produced. 

The moft talkative man has been (truck dumb. 

Human councils have failed. 

They alone remain. 

The uncultivated way may be left. 

No luxury will be found. 

Our whole army has been deftroyed. 

A wonderful accident has happened. 
All that afTent falls off. 

The careful hufbandman fows. 

One man has freed us. 

He left a marriageable daughter. 

He leaves no building. 

How long will that, your madnefs, play upon me r 

I have found out all thefe things. 
All your citizens fear you. 
Take care of your wives. 

One day omitted often difturbs the whole. 

A wife praetor avoids offence. 

All the nobles know thefe things, our own countrymen 
know them, the little merchants know them. 

You have rejected all equity. 

Nor do I now blame your intention. 

The true difpute is this. 

Your tears hinder me. 

The other perfon has deceived many. 

A learned man commended the philofophers. 

The fenate undertook my caufe. 

All perfons avoid your difcourfe. 
He did not carry his own tribe. 
They appointed yearly magiftrates. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. n 

Homo, inis, 3 c. impudens, impudcntiffimus. dcligo, egu 
Nullus, a, um. privatus, a, um. epiftola, a, I f. profero, irr. 
Homo loquax, ac'tffimus, a, um. obmutefco, iff, 3 n. 
Humanus, a, um. concilium, /, 2 n. cado, cecidi, 3# 
Ille, a, ud. folus a, um. permaneo, anfi, 3. 
Incultus, a, urn. via, a, 1 f. relinquo, iqui, 3. 
Nullus, a, um. luxuries, «, 5/. reperior, repertus fum, 4. 
Nofter, a, um. omnis, e, adj. exercitus, us, 4 w. intereo, 

ii, 4 neut. 
MiriS:us, a, um. cafus, us, 4 m. evenio, /, 4. 
Omnis, e, adj. ille, a, ud. alfenfus, us, 4 m. elabor, elapfus 

fum, 3 dep. 
Diligens, entls, adj. agricola, a, 1 m. fero, vi, 3. 
Vir, iri, 2 m. unus, a, um. libero, avi, I. ego, pron. 
Relinquo, /yai, 3. filia, <z, if. nubilis, e, adj. 
Relinquo, iqui, nullus, a, um. aedificium, i, 2 n. 
Quamdiu, adv. furor, oris, 3 m. ille, a, ud, pron. tuus, a, 

um, pron. ludo, fi, 3. ego, pron. 
Ego, pron» comperio, i, 4. hie, ^>r/5#. <?r/. omnis, i. 
Omnis, e, civis, is, 3 *. metuo, wi, 3. tu, pron. 
Tu, pron. euro, avi, I. conjux, «j^V, 3 y. vefter, tf, wa. 
Unus, a, um, adj. dies, «, 5 /w. intermiflus, <?, w#/. fepe, 

tz<r/x'. perturbo, 0<t;ij 1. totus, a, um, adj. 
Praetor, oris, 3 m. fapiens, entjs, adj. ;vito, avi, 1 . offenlio> 

onis, 3 yi 
Omnis, e, adj. nobilis, e, adj. fcio, ivi, 4. hie, /W, hoc, 

nofter, a, um, pron. homo, inis, 3 c. fcio, ivi, 4. medio- 

cris, *?, adj. negociator, oris, 3 ?w. fcio. 
Rejicio, eci, 3. equitas, atis, $ f. omnis, e. 
Neque, adv. nunc, adv. reprehendo, /,3. conillium, i, 

2 «. tuus, a, um, pron. 
Contentio, onis, $f verus, a, um, adj. fum, hie. 
Lachryma, a, if. tuus, a, um. impedio, ivi, 4. ego, pron* 
Homo, inis, 3 c. alter, a, um. failo, fifelli, 3. irmltus, 

Homo, inis, 3 f. doclus, laudo, avi, 1. philofophus, /, 2 m. 
Senatus, «j, 4 wi. fufcipio, epi, 3. caufa, #, 1/. meus, 

a, um. 
Omnis, e, fugio, i, 3. ferrno, onis, 3 m. tuus, j, «w. 
Non, adv. fero, /w/i, irr. tribus, us, ^.f. fuus, #, um, 
Creo, aw, 1. magiftratus, us, 4 w. annuus, #, um. 



12 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Our countrymen always thought thcfe, daring, wicked, 
dangerous citizens. 

I will name no woman. 
Men may blame my advice. 

This new form frightens the eyes. 

One confolation fupports me. 

What witnefs has called upon Po'fthumius ? 

That angry man defires your blood. 

Your anceftors conquered all Italy. 

Our anceftors took up arms. 

Hear thofe good men. 

The Roman people poffefs Macedonia. 

Trebonius fuffered great pain. 

This thing confoles me. 

I received your pleafmg letters. 

All thefe things will have a better end. 

I acquire my dignity. 
I have read your fpeech. 
You never had more farms. 

Csefar approved of this my conduct. 

We have loft a very worthy citizen. 
We ha ve many probable things. 
Your expectation does not difturb me. 

Unprovided he took up arms. 

All minds being cultivated do not bear Fruit. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 13 

Homo, inis, 3 c. nofter, a, um. Temper, adv. puto, avi. 

hie, audax, acts, adj. malus, a, um. perniciolus, a, um. 

civis, is, 3 c. 
Nomino, avi, 1. fxmina, a, if. nullus, a, um. 
Homo, inis, 3 c. reprehendo, di, 3. concilium, /, 2 n. 

meus, a, um. 
Hie, h&c, hoc. novus, a, um. forma, a, if. terreo, ui, 2. 

oculus, /, 2 m. 
Confolatio, onis, 3 f. unus, a, um. fuftento, avi, 1. ego, 

pron. 
Quls, qua, quid, teftis, is } 3 c. invoco, avi, 1. Pofthu- 

mius, i, 2 m. 
Homo, mis, 3 c. iratus, a, um. ille, a, ud, pron. concu- 

pifco, ivi, 3. fanguis, inis, 3 m. vefter, a, um. 
Majores, 3 pi. m. vefler, a, um. vinco, id, 3. Italia, *, 

i.f. univerfus, a, um. 
Majores, 3 pi. m. nofter, a, um. capio, cepi, 3. arma, orum 9 

2 neut. pi. 
Audio, ivi, 4. vir, iri, 2 m. bonus, a, um. ifle, a, ud. 
Populus, /, 2 ml Romanus, a, um. teneo, ui, 2. Ma- 
cedonia, a, 1 f. 
Trebonius, /, 2 m. perfero, tuli, irr. dolor, oris, 3 m. 

magnus, a, um. 
Res, ei, 5 f. ille, a, ud. confolbr, atus fum, 1 dep. ego. 
A ccipio, epiy 3. liters, arum, I f. pi. tuus, a, um. fua- 

vis, e. 
Hie omnis, c. habeo, ui, 2. exitus, its, 4 m. melior, oris 9 

adj. 
Obtineo, ui, 2, dignitas, atis, 3/. meus, a, tmu 
Lego, egi, 3. fermo, onis, 3 m. tuus, a, um. 
Nunquam, adv. habeo, ui, 2. plus, pluris, adj. praedi- 

um, i, 2 n. 
Cosfar, aris, 3 m. approbo, avi, 1. aclio, onis, 3 f. hie, 

meus, a, um. 
Amitto, if, 3. civis, is, 3. c. optimns, a, um. 
Ego, pron. habeo, ui, 2. multus, a, um, probabilis, e. 
Expe&atio, onis, 3 f. tiius, a, um. non, adv. perturb"o, 

avi, 1. ego, pron. 
Imparatus, a, um. {\\mo,fumpf, 3. arma, orum, ± n. fit. 
Animus, /, 2 m. omnis, e. cultus, si } um. non, adv. ferd, 

-tuli, irr. fru&us, us, 4 777. 

c 



14 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

The poets introduce the braveft men lamenting. 

You defpife all authorities. 
Every animal defires fomething. 

I will remove that fevere old man. 
Reafon declares the fame thing. 

Your love conquers all difficulties. 



CHAPTER IV. 

You love modefty, and goodnefs, and virtue. 

Neither the fenate nor the people has any power. 

You will know a modefl and fenfible man. 

Philofophy takes away vain troubles, and drives off 

fear. 
I defpife magnificent villas, and marble pavements. 

Antony led out two legions and two praetorian cohorts» 

We fee very many males and females. 

Wafh your hands and fup. 

A lofty and noble mind defpifes all human affairs. 

You have the right and the power. 

They have defired great things, and very much to be 

expected. 
Nature has made man bolder than woman. 

He adds a fleet and an army. 

Your quick return declares your politenefs and affection* 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 15 

Poeta, /f, 1 vi. induco, uxi, 3. vir, iri, 2 m. fortis, e. la- 

mentans, ant is, part. 
Tu, pro7u contemno, i, 3. aiithoritas, <7//j, 3/. omnis, e. 
Omnis, e. animal, alls, 3 n. adepto, /', 3. quidam, quadam 9 

quoddam. 
Rcmoveo, vi 9 2. ille, a, ud. durus, a, um. fenex, fenis, 3 nu 
Ratio, onis, 3/. ipfe, a, ud. declare, av'u hie, idem, eadem, 

idem. 
Amor, oris, 3 m. tuus, a, um, pron. vinco, id, 3. difHcul- 

tas, atis, 3 f. omnis, e, adj. 



RULE LVIIL 

Diligo, exi, 3, pudor, oris, 3 nu &, conj. bonitas, atis, $f 

que, conj. virtus, utis, 3/. 
Nee, conj. fenatus, us, q.m. nee, conj. populus, /, 2 nu ha- 

beo, «/', 2. vis, is, 3/. ullus, #, ud. 
Cognofco, o*vi, 3. homo, mi/, 3 r. modeftus, #, urn. et, 

£<?«/. prudens, «i/£r, adj, - 
Philofophia, a, if. detraho, traxi, 3. folicitudo, inis 9 3/. 

inanis,. e. £c,- con}* pello, pepuli, 3. timor, 0/7V, 3 w. 
-Contemno, empfi,, 3. villa, #, 1 f. magnificus, a, urn. et, 

f0/y. pavimentum, /, 2 n. marmoreus, a, urn. 
Antonius, i, 2 m. educo, uxi, 3. legio, onis, 3 y. duo, et, 

fo«/. cohors, 0/*//*, g/. duo, praetcrius, #, aw. 
Video, di, 2. complures, pL adj. mas, arts, 3 w. et, conj. 

faemina, *,■ 1 /. 
Lavo, i, 1, manus, wx, 4/. tuus, #, «w. et, cceno, avt, I. 
Animus, /, 2 77/. excelfus, #, urn. et, £0/1/. magnificus, #, 

um. defpicio, exi, 3, res, rei, 5 f. omnis, e. humanus* a 9 

urn. 
Habeo, ui, 2. jus, juris, 3 n. et, conj. poteftas, aiis 9 $f. 
Concupifco, ivi, 3 f. res, a, 5 f. magnus, a, um. et, conj. 

magnopere, adv. expectandus, a, um, part. 
Natura, a, if. facio, eci, 3. vir, iri, 2 m. audacior, oris, 

adj. compar. quam, conj. mulier, eris 9 3 f 
Adjungo, unxi, 3. clalfis, //, 3/. et, conj. exercltus, us, 

4 nu 
Reditus, us, 4 nu celer, a, urn. tuus, a, um. declaro, avi* 

1. humanitas, atis, if. tuus, et, amor, oris 9 3 m. 



x6 AN INTRODUCTION TO- 



CHAPTER V. 

Bythinia is your province. 

No one is companionate. 

There is the higheft honour, the highefl dignity. 

Your fpeech was very elegant and very cunning. 

This is one place. 

You have been tribune. 

There was fuch boldnefs and fuch violence. 

May my fellow citizens be fafe, be flourifhing, -be happy. 

Experience is the befl mafter. 
Thou art a judge. 
All the fault is yours. 
All fiavery is wretched. 

There is the greateft difagreement, but an unequal coa- 
ted. 
There is great difturbance and confufion. 

Admonition is not neceffary. 

The greateft feverity is popular. 

Are not you a ridiculous man ? 

My enemies are many. 

The diiiinction is eafy and ftiort. 

Your writings are true. 

Fain is not the greateft evil. 

A wife man is always happy. 

We are not ignorant. 

A brave man is confident. 

The ftars are hot and bright. 

Every body is either water, or air, or fire, or earth. 



They are innocent and mo deft. 
They were called the nobles. 
Seven were called wife men. 
Varro was efteemed a learned man. 
Cicero was accounted eloquent. 






THE MAKING OF LATIN. 



RULE V. 

Bythinia, <*, i f fum, provincia, <?, i f. vefter, a, um. 

Nemo, inis, 3. fum, mifericors, ordis, adj. 

Sum, honeftas, atis, 3 f. fummus, dignitas, atis, 3 / 

fum mus, a, um. 
Oratio, onis, 3 /. tuus, a, um. fum, perelegans, antis, 

adj. et perfubtilis, e. 
Hie, fum, unus, a, urn. locus, i, 2 in. 
Sum, tribunus, /, 2 m. 

Sum, audacia, a, 1 /. tantus, #, «w. et, vis, is, 3/. tantus. 
Sum, civis, is, 3 £■, incolumis, e, fum, florens, £/z//V, />#>Y. 

fum, beatus, a, .urn. 
Experientia, a, if fum, magifter, /, 2 at. bonus. 
Sum, judex, ids, 3. 

Crimen, i/i/j-, 3 ;;. omnis, e, adj. fum. tuus, a, urn. 
Servitus, uth, $f omnis, e. fum, mifer, a, urn. 
Sum, diffentio, onis 9 3 /. fummus, a, urn. fed, conj. con- 

tentio, onis, 3 f difpar, adj.' 
Sum, perturbatio, onis, 3 /. magnus, a, wn. et, «?/t/. 

con f u fi o, -o/wj-, 3 y. 
Hortatio, o/z/j, 3 f. non, fum, necefTarius, #, urn. 
Severitas, atu 9 3 /*. magnus, a, urn. fum, popularis, r. 
Non., fum, tu, jSrw. homo, inis, 3 <% ridiculus, a, u;n. 
Inimicus, i 9 2 m. mens, a, vm. fum, multus, a, urn. 
Diftinctio, onis, 3/. furrijiacilis, e. et, conj. expeditus, a 9 urn. 
Scriptum, i, 2 n. tuus, a, urn. fum, verus, a, urn. 
Dolor, oris, 3 m. non, fum, malum, 2 /z. magnus, #, wn. 
Sapiens, entis 9 adj. fam, femper, adv. beatus, a, um. 
Non, fum, ignarus, a 9 um. 
Vir, />/, 2 wz. fortis, e. fum, fidens, /ar^f. 
Sidus, eris, 3 ?z. fum, calidus, a, um. et, perlucidus, a, um. 
Corpus, oris, 3 ;z. omnij, e. fum, vel, ^?z/. aqua, a, 1 j£ f 

vel, conj. aer, erir, 3 m. vel, ro«/. ignis, *.r, 3 m* vilj 
_ terra, * , 1 /. 

Wum, innocens, «ito, adj. et, verecundus, #, «?«. 
Ifte, a, z^. optimas, dtfij, 3 w. vocor, at us fum, 1. 
Septem, habeor, itus fum, 2. fapiens, /Ar. vir, zrz, 2 m. 
Varro, eriftimo, avi, 1. doctus, a, um. vir, 2 mu 
Cicero, habeo, ui 9 2. difertus, a, um. 
C a 



i8- AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Ariiiides was called juft. 
Pompey was named the great. 
All flavery is wretched. 
The foldiers deep fecure. 
The portion was twenty talents. 
Bones are made a (tone. 
Blood was tears. 



CHAPTER VI. 

He defires to pour out all his blood* 

Have you obliged the crier to lie i 

It is difficult to be filent. 

My grief would compel me to anfwer. 

He was not able to tell their names. 

What tyrant has forbidden the unhappy to lament ? 

You are accuftomed to call yourfelf a Pythagorean. 

A certain fatal calamity feems to have fallen upon and 
feized the improvident minds of men. 

You are accuftomed to forget nothing but injuries» 

Let him ceafe to oppofe Brutus. 

They have endeavoured to renew the war. 

You fcem to entertain fome hope. 

Philo has been willing to overthrow- that definition. 

They de fire to confound all things. 
Cur friend Pomponius feems to joke. 

Critolaus chofe to imitate the ancients* 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 19 

ArifHdes, voce, avi, 1. juftus, a, urn. . 
Pompelus, appello, a<vi, 1. magnus, a, urn. 
Omnis, fervitus, utis, §f. rnifcr, era, erum. .-. 
Miles, */«■, 3 r. dormio, m, 4. fecurus, a, um. 
Dos, otis, 3/. fum, decern, untentum, /, 2 n. 
Os, 0^, 3 «. fio, irr. lapis, /V/V, 3 m. 
Sanguis, inis, 3 m. fum, lachryma, <e, 1 /. 



RULE XXX. 

Cupio, ivi, 3. prof undo, udi, 3. fanguis, inis, 3 m. fuus, a r 

um. omnis, e. 
Cogo, coegi, 3. praeco, onis, 3 m. mentior, mentitus fum, 4? 

<£^. 
Sum, difficilis, r. taceo ui. 
Dolor, oris, 3 ro. meus cogo, egi, 3. ego, pron. refpondeo^ 

i, 2. 
Non, pofTum, potui, irr. dico, /#/, 3. noman, inis* $ n. is, 

ea, id. 
Quis, gw^, $wV/. tyrannus, /, 2 m. veto, ui, 1. mifer, #, wrc. 

lugeo, uxi, 2. 
Soleo, folitus fum, r.eut. pajf. dico, </i*/* 3. tu,/>n?/z..Pytha- 

goreus, #, z/w. 
Quidam, quadam, quoddam. calamitas, atis, 3 /. fatalis, e. 

video, i, 2. incido, di, 3. et, con), occupo, avi, 1. mens, . , 

entis, $f. improvidus, a, urn. homo inis, 3. 
Soleo, folitus fum, 2 neut. pajf. oblivifcor, oblitus fum, 3 dep. 

nihil, zW<?r/. nifi, row/, injuria, #, 1 jk 
Defmo, m, & ii, 3. oppugno, avi, 1. Brutus, /', 2 w. 
Conor, at us fum, 1 *&/>. renovo, aw/, 1. bellum, i, 2 «. 
Videor, vifusfum, 2. habeo, at, 2. fpes, ei, 5 f. nonnullus, 

a, um. 
Philo, onis, 3 m. volo, volui, irr. everto, /*', 3. is, ea, id. de- 

finitio, onis, 3/. . 

Cupio, m, 3. confundo,yW/, 3. omnis, e. 
Ppmponius, /', 2 m. nofter, a, urn. videor, vifus fum, 2. jo-«* 

cor, jocatus fum. 1 dtp. 
Oitolaus, t 7 2 m. volo, volui, trr> imitor ; 1 dep. antiquus, 

0) urn, , 



20 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Pythian Apollo commands us to know ourfelves. 

The mind always defires to do fomething. 

I do not dare to fay that. 

Virtue cannot be loft. 

We are able to confute invidious cenfurers. 

I indeed defire to hear thefe things. 

He thinks natural law to be divine. 

Who can know thefe things ? 

It was difficult to leave fo gre.at an affair unrmifhed^. 

You dare not deny that there are Gods. 

Where can there be any piety, if the Gods regard not 

human affairs ? 
I defire to hear what you yourfelf may think. 

I defire not to be thought a liar. 

I fear, left, while I may be defirous of diminifhirig my : 

labour, I may increafe it.- 
I think that the manners of the citizens are changed. 

They have defired to murder our children. 
We are able to enjoy many other pleafures. 

It is time to depart. 

There was a defire to. know fuch great things. . ■ 

He took this occafion to write. 

I gave a fign to come to the God. . 

Worthy to be read. 

Defiring to die. 

Trees that will not grow. 

Not knowing to fuffer poverty. 

Defirous to begin the battle.... 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 21 

Pythius, a, um. Apollo, inis, 3 m. jubeo, jufft^ 2. nofco 

oyi, 3. ego, ipfe. 
Animus, i, 2 m. fcmper, adv. appeto, i. 3. ago, egi, 3. 

aliquis, a, /V/. 
Non, adv. audeo, aufus fum, 2 nent. pajf. dico. tx/, 3. ea, id. 
Virtus, utis, ^ f. non, adv. polYum y potui, irr. amitto, ifi, 3. 
PofTum, irr. confuto, avi, 3. vituperator, oris, 3 m. invi- 

dus, <?, um. 
T.^o, pron. vero, tfJ?;. cupio, ivi, 3. audio, rat, 4. iilc, #, 

Cenfco, z/i, 2. lex, 3, naturalis, <r. fum, divLius* .. 

Qui, poflum, agnofco, ovi, 3. is. 

Mum, difficilis, relinquo, icui, 3. res, ei, .5. tantus inchoa-i 

tus. 
Non, audeo, aufus fum, 2. nego. aw,* fum, Deus. 
Quis, pomim, irr. fum, fantfitas, <3//>, 3 /. fi, Deus, «<?m. . 

plur. Dii. non, euro, #?>/. humanus, a, um. 
Aveo, 2, caret, prei, fif y#/>. audio, quis, tu, ipfe, <?, 1 m. 

fentio, ire, 4. 
Ego, cupio, cupere & cupive, 3 & 4. ego, non, puto, at'/,. 

1. mendax, ads, adj. 
Vereor, erOutfum ne, dum,.volo, irr. minuo, w, 3. labor, 

ow, 3 wz. augeo, 0tt#f, 3. 
Ego, />/w. puto, avi, 1. mos, or/x, 3 m. ci vitas, #/tV, 3/. 

mutor, #r/, 1. 4 
Yolo, lui, irr. trucido. avi. nofler, liberi, 2 pK 
Poflum. potui, irr. habeo, ui, 2. rnultus, a, un. alias, w v . 

deleclatio, onis, % f. 
Tempus, oris, 3 n. fum, abeo, ivi, 4. 
Sum, amor, oris, 3 m. cognofco, nnvi, 3, tam. 

.magnus, a, um. cafus, us, 4 m. 
Apprehendo, di, 3. occafio, onis, 3/. fcribo, t£//, 3. 
Signum, /', 2 «. do, dedi. venio, veni, 4. Deus, i, m. 
Dignus, a, um. legor, legi. 
Cupidus 5 a, um, morior, mortuus fum. 
Arbor, oris, 3/. indocilis, e. adj. pafcor, pqftus fum* 
I n doc ili s, e. pauperies, el, § f. patior, paffus fum. 
Avidu?> a- um. pugna, it. committo if, 3. 



tt AN INTRODUCTION TO 

CHAPTER VII. 

The glory, of the Roman people is concerned.- 

He received the fruit of his virtue. 

Obferve the boldnefs of the man. 

He heard the words of many witnefles. 

They expreiTed the care and the grief of tEeir minds. 

Do you dare make mention of the Sempronian law? 

You fee the force of the Agrarian law. 
He implores not the ability of the orator, but the pro- 
tection of the conful. 
You have attempted to violate the liberty of this people* 

You have defpifed the whole authority of the fenate. 

They left that part of the benches empty. 

The* images of the immortal gods, and the ftatues of 
ancient men, have been thrown down. 

Protect the name and the fafety of the Roman people. 

The violence of the wicked has deceived my expectation. 

You have defpifed the family of Murena, you have ex- 
tolled ycnr own. 
He left no proof of avarice, nor luxury. 

I will not fear the teftimcny of thefe perfons, 

The glory of virtue confifts in action. 

I know the cuftcm of the men. 

The caufe of all good men is the fame. 

Ye fee the diligence of the Gauls. 

It would be abfurd to make no mention of Sulla- 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 23 



RULE VI. 

Gloria, e, 1 /. populus, i f 2 m. Romanus, a, um. ago, 

Capio, cepl, 3. fructus, us, 4 in. virtus, utls, 3 f. is, ftf, rtf* 

Video, di, 2. audacia, #, 1 f. homo, inis, 3. 

Audio, ivl, 4. verbum, f, 2 n. teftis, /V, 3 r. multus, 

a, &w. 
Significo, tf<y/, 1. cura, <r, 2 /. et, conj. dolor, oris, 3 rru 

animus, I, 2 m. fuus, <?, um. 
Audeo, aufus fum, 2. facio, eel, 3. mentio, o«w, 3 f. lex 5 

^/jp, 3/. Sempronius, a, um. 
Video di, 2. vis, ins, $f. lex, <f§7>- 3. Agrarius, #, «w. 
Non, adv. imploro, avi, 1. ingenium, /, 2 n. orator, oris, 

3 m. fed, «w/. auxilium, i, 2 n. conful, ulis, 3. m. 
Conor, atus /urn, 1 dep. violo, avi, 1. libertas, atis, 3 jf. 

hie, hac, hoc. populus, i, 2 m. 
Negligo, exi, 3. authoritas, atis, 3/. omnis,** fenatus, us, 

4 m - 

Relinquo, Iqui, 3. pars, arils, 3/. ifte, a,. id. fubfellium, /, 

2 n. inanis, e. 
Simulacrum, 1, 2 n. deus, 1, 2 m. immortalis, e. et, conj. 
ilatua, a, if. homo, has, 3. antiquus, a, um. dejicio, 

eci, 3. 
Confervo, avi, 1. nomen, luls,^ n. et, conj. falus, utls, 3/. 

populus, i, 2 in. Romanus, a, um. 
Vis, Is, 3 /. improbus, #, um. fallo, fifelll, 3. expeclatio, 

ew/'j, 3/. meus, a, um. 
Contemno, empji^ 3. genus, frir, 3 n. Murena, <r, 1 m. effe- 

ro, extull, 3. tuus, a, um. 
Relinquo, iqui, 3, veftigium, I, 2 n. nullus, a, um. avari- 

tia, a, 1 f. neque, adv. luxuria, a, 1 f. 
Non, adv. pertimefco, timul, 3. teftimonium, I, 2 n. hie, 

hac, hoc. 
Laus, audh, 3 f. virtus, utls, $f. confifto, Jlitl, 3. in, actio* 

onh, 3/. 
Nofeo, ovl, 3. confuetudo, mis, 3/. homo, inls, 3. 
Caufa, #, 1/. omnis, e. bonus, a, um. Aim, unus, a, um. 
Video di, 2. diligentia, .#, if. Gallus, /, 2 m. 
Sum, abfurdus, a, um. facio, ecl 9 3. mentio, wis, 3 y. 

nullus, a, um. Sulla, a, 1 rru 



«4 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

- You defire the public records of the Heracleans. 

.Almoft all the other mr.giftrates were the defenders of 

my fafety. 

Fonteius had the power of life and death. 

Ye fee the intolerable boldncfs of the man. 

I do not now complain of the iniquity of the law. 

You have avoided the fentence of the law. 

There was no fufpicion of bribery. 

This was the difcourfe of all men. 

Ye fee the diligence and the integrity of the man. 

I have borne the cruelty of enemies, the wickednefs of 
the faithlefs, the deceit of the envious. 

Nature has given a variety of many moil pleafing 

things. 
I lay aiide the remembrance of my own grief. 

This is the caufe of all thefe crimes and wickednefs. 

Ye know their virtue and diligence. 

So great is the power of virtue, that a good man is 

happy. 
The wiieil men faw the reafon of the action. 

I recommend the incredible diligence of Pompey. 

He was the common enemy of all. 

There was no appreheniion of a war. 

It is a crime of neceiiity, not of inclination. 

I was always the promoter of peace. 
I have explained the caufe of my return. 
I have defpifed the fword of. Catiline ; I will not fear 
your contempt. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 25 

Defidero, avi, 1. tabula,*?, if. publicus, a, um. Hera- 

clienfis, e. 
Pcene, adv. omnis, e. reliquus, a, um. magiftratus, us f 

4 m. fum, defenfor, oris, 3 m. falus, utis, 3 f meus 

a, um. 
Fonteius, /', 2 m. habeo, ui, 2. poteftas, atis, 3/. vita, a, 

1 f et, co«/. nex, eels, $f 
Video, i f 2. audacia, a, if. intolerabilis, e. homo, inis, 3 r. 
Neque, adv. ego, />ro«. nunc, adv. queror, quflus fum, 

3 dep. iniquitas, atis, 3/. lex, egis, $ f. 
Fugio, /, 3. fententia, a, 1 /. lex. 

Sum, fufpicio, onis, 3/. nullus, a, um, largitio, onis, $f. 
Hie, fum, fermo, onis, 3 m, omnis, e. 
Video, /', 2. fedulitas, atis, 3/. et, conj. integritas, atis 9 

3 f. vir, iri, 2 w. 
Perfero, tuli, irr. crudelitas, atis, 3 /. inimicus, /, 2 w. 

fcelus, eris, 3 /7. infidelis, e. fraus, dis, 3 y*. invi- 

dus, a, um, 
Natura, a, if. do, dedi, 1. varietas, atis, 3/. multus, 

#, um, jucundus, a, um, res, ret, 5 f. 
Depono,y^/, 3. memoria, a, if. dolor, oris, 3 m, meus, 

a, um. 
Hie, fum, caufa, a, 1 f, crimen, inis, 3 n. hie, omnis, e. 

et, ^w/. fcelus, eris, 3 w. 
Cognofco, ow, 3. virtus, j///V, 3 /. is, ea, id. et, £077/. 

diligentia, <z, if. 
Tantus, a, um, fum, vis, vis, 3 /. virtus, uiis, 3 y. ut, 

conj, vir, /;v, 2 m, bonus, a, um, fum, felix. 
Sapiens, entis, adj, 3. video, i, 2. ratio, o;;/V, 3 y*. fac- 
tum, /, 2 /2. 
Laudo, aw, 1. diligentia, a, 1 /. incredibilis, e. Pom- 

peius, /, 2 m. 
Sum, hoftis, // ; 3 c, communis, e, omnis, e. 
Sum, fufpicio, onis, $f. nullus, a, um, bellum, /, 2 n. 
Sum, crimen, inis y 3 n, neceffitas, atis, 3 y*. non, adv, 

voluntas, atis, 3 f. 
Semper, adv. fum, author, oris, 3 m. pax, <7f/>, 3 /. 
Expono,/^/, 3. caufa, <e, if. reditus, us, 4 m. meus. 
Contemno, ^^, 3. gladius, /, 2 w. Catilina, a, 1 w. 

non, ^«y. pertimefco, tlmui, 3. contemptus, &r, 4 w* 

tuus, #, #/«. 



D 



26 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

They have deferted that enemy and robber and parri- 
cide of his country. 
We defend die temples of the immortal Gods. 

The name of peace is fweet. 

The fafety of Brutus is the end of this war. 

The perverfenefs of mankind is incredible. 
He has pafTed the bounds of modefly. 
The fecure recollection of pad grief contains a plea- 
fur e. 
I will draw up commentaries of all the particulars. 

I have perceived the firmnefs and dignity of your mind* 

No bound cr end of vain defires can be found. 

Money is the procurer of many and great pleafures. 

Let the acquifition of pleafure be as great as you 

pie ale. 
I hear the voic« of a philofopher. 
The pleafure of the mind is greater than the pleafure of 

the body. 
The remembrance of paft misfortunes is pleafmg. 

The beginnings of all things are fmall. 

Carefully turn over that book of his. 

The confent of all is the voice of reafon. 

i 
He reckons up the inconve liences of human life. 

The culture of the mind is philofophy. 
I think pain the greater!; of all evils. 

The force of cuftom is great. 

The two greateft gifts of fortitude are, the contempt of 
pain, and of death. 

Wi'fdom is the health of the mind. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 27 

Relinquo, iqui, 3 n. hoftis, is, e, 3. illa> /7, ul. et, latro, 

0/2/J-, 3 m. et, parricida, *, x m. patria, a, 1 /. 
Nos, defendo, J/, 3. templum, /', 2 «. Deus, /, 2 m. im- 

mortalis, <?. 
Nomen, inis, 3 «. pax, acts, 3/. fum, dulcis, <». 
Salus, wis, 3/. Brutus, /, 2 m. fum, confeclio, o//;V, 3 */. 

hie, bellum, /, 2 /2. 
Perverfitas, £/;>, 3 f, homo, tnis 9 3 ^. fum, incredihilis, e. 
Tranfeo, ivl 4. finis, & 9 ym. modeftia, a, if 
Recordatio, ortts 9 5 f fecurus, a, um. dolor, oris, 3 m* 

praeteritus, a, um. habeo, ui, 2. delectatio, onis 9 3/. 
Conficio, ecl 9 3. commentarius, /, 2 m. res, ci, 5 f 

omnis, e. 
Perfpicio, exi 9 &eci' 9 3. flrmitudo, inu 9 $f et, dignkas, atis 9 

$f. animus, ;', 2 m. tuus, a, um. 
Modus, /, 2 m. aut, rs/z/. finis, is 9 3 w. nullus, #, um. cupi- 

ditas, o/jlr, 3/. inanis,.*. poffam 9 fotui. irr. invenio, /', 4« 
Pecunia, a, 1 /. fum, gffectrix, icis 9 3 jT. voluptas, atis 9 

$f multus, a 9 um. et, magnus, a, um. 
Sum, comparatio, oni.?, 3 /*. voluptas, atis, 3/. tarn, #A\ 

facilis, e. quam, adv. volo, a/, irr. 
Audio, ivi, 4. vox, ocis, 3 /. philofophus, /, 2 w. 
Voluptas, <s/;V, 3/. animus, ;, 2 bfc funr, magnus, a, urn. 

major, maxi.nus. quam, corpus, oris, 3 n. 
Memoria, a, 1 f malum, /, 2 n. prasteritus, a, um. fum, 

jucundus, a, um. 
Brincipium, i, 2 «.'res, ei Y $ f. omnis, e. fum, parvus, 

a, um. 
Diligenter, adv. evolvo, vi 9 3. is, en, uk liber, ri, 2 m. 

is, ea, id. 
Confenfus, us, 4 m. omnis, e. fum, vox, ocis, 3 f ratio, 

c^/V, 3 y. 
Enumero, a*»*, i. incommodum, i, 2 n. vita, a, if. hu- 

manus, tf, um. 
Cultura, a, 1 y*. animus, /', 2 wi. fum, philofophia, a, 1 f. 
Exiflimo, avl, 1. dolor, oris. 3 m. magnus, a, um. ma- 
lum, f 2 «. omnis, e. 
Vis, itfij 3/. confuetuJo, inis, 3/. fum, magnus, #, um. 
Munus, eris, 3 «. duo, magnus, a, tun. fortitudo, inis, $f. 

fum, contemptus, as, 4 m. dolor, ww, 3 m* et, mors, 

or/w, 3/. 
Sapientia, e, if. fum, fanitas, atis, 3/. mens, «tfir, 3/ 



18 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

The mind of a wife man will always be undifturbed. 

The imitation of virtue is emulation. 

This fifth day will make an end of the Tufculan difpu- 

tations. 
I fear the weaknefs and frailty of human nature. 

The royal virgins fhaved the beard and the hair of their 

own father. 
He perceives the motions and revolutions of the whole 

univerfe. 
Deaf men do not hear the voice of the harper. 

No art can imitate the cunning of nature. 

The name of Apollo is Greek. 

How great is the variety of living creatures ! 

The pilot blames the violence of the ftorm. 

The variety of opinions, and the difagreement of men, 
diflurbs us. 

The ignorance of future evils is better than the know- 
ledge. 

The foundation of juflice is good faith. 

Every mode and plan of life requires the affiftance of 
mankind. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

I have not dared to write to Csefar on account of his en- 
gagements. 
He accompliflied this by the death of another body. 

Do you efteem me cruel, inhuman, fevere, beyond other 

perfons ? 
Publius Sextius undertook a journey to Csefar for my 

fafety. 
You have gardens at the Tyber. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 29 

Mens, fapiens, entti} 3. femper, adv. fum, tranquillus, 

a, urn* 
Imitatio, onis, 3 /. virtus, utis, 3 /. fum, aemulatio, onis, 

3 /• . , . . e . 

Hie, dies, ti\ 5 m. quintus, a, um. facio, #:/, 3. finis, 3 w. 

difputatio, 07z/\r, 3/. Tufculanus, a, um. 
Extimefco, timui, 2. imbecilitas, atis, 3 /*. et, fragilitas, 

atis, 3/. genus, eris, 3 /z. humanus, #, um. 
Virgo, inis, 3/. regius, a, um. tondeo, totondi, 2, barba, 

a, 1 /. et, capillus, i, 2 ??2. pater, ris, 3 ;w. fuus, #, um. 
Pcrcipio, epi, 3. motus, us, 4 w. et, converfio, onis, 3/. 

mundus, r, 2 m, totus, n, wm. 
Surd us, #, j/w, non, audio, vox, oris, 3 /. citharaedus, 

i, 2 m. 
Ars, artis, 3/. nullus, #, ?^m. poflum, /o/k/, /rr. imitor, 

atus fum, 1 *&/. folertia, a, 1 /. natura, <? , 1 f. 
Nomen, inis, 3 n. Apollo, inis, 3 w. fum, Graecus, a, um. 
Quantus, a, um. fum, varietas, atis, 3/. animans, antis, 

adj. 
Gubernator, oris, 3 m. accufo, avi, 1. vis, «y/V, 3/. tem- 

peftas, atis, 3 /. 
Varietas, atis, 3/. opinio, 0^ 3/. et, diffentio, onis, 3/. 

homo, perturbo, avi. ego, pron. 
Ignoratio, onis, 3 f. futurus, a, um. malum, /, 2 n, fum, 

utilis, e. quam, fcientia. 
Fundamentum, i, 2 n. juftitia, ^, I /.fum, fides, ei, 5 f. 
Ratio, onis, 3/. cmnis, e. et, inftitutio, onis, 3/. vita, <?, I 

f. defidero, avi, 1. adjumentum, i, 2 n. homo, inis, 3 c. 



RULE XLII. 

Non, audco, aufis fum, 2. fcribo, fcripjl, 3. ad, Caefar, arts, 

3 m. propter, occupatio, onis, 3 f. fuus, #, z/w. 
Perficio, eci, 3. hie, per, mors, oriis, 3 /. corpus, or/j, 3 

«. alius, r/, «*/. 
Exiftimo, avi, 1. ego, crudelis, e. inhurrrarius, '&, um. af- 

per, a, um. praster, caeterus, a, um. 
Puolius, i, 2 m. Sextius, /', 2 m. fufcipio, epi, 3. iter, ttini» 

ris, 3 n. ad, Caefar, ob, falus, utis, $f. meus, a, um. 
Habco, ui, 2. hortus, i, 2 m. ad, Tyber, eris t 3. 
P 4 



i 



30 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Did the father recommend this boy for this purpofe i 

The legions determined to defend the fenate againft 

Anthony. 
Your fortune invites you to eafe and dignity. 

I knew your difpofition to me before the civil war. 



CHAPTER IX. 

He fpoke of the nature of the war. 

He could not fee her without the greateft grief. 

He is-faid to have fallen from his horfe. 
I am afraid to fpeak of myfelf before you. 

They undertook the bufmefs without any delay* 

They took up arms for their common fafety. 

Think of yourfelves and children. 

My brother determined according to his equity and pru T 

dence. 
All good men, of all ranks aud orders, join my fafety 

to their own. 

He fpoke with a low voice of the wickednefs of Lentu- 
lus, of the boldnefs of all the confpirators. 

In fo great a cloud of error and ignorance, you hold 
out the cleareft light to my underitanding. 

I reft the whole caufe on your clemency and humanity» 

He joined my caufe with the common fafety. 

He was tribune of the foldiers in Macedonia, 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 31 

Parens, entis, 3, c. commendo, avi, 1. hie, huer, eri, 2 m. 

ob, hie, caufa, a, 1 f 
Legio, on'is, 3 f difcerno, crevi> 3. defendo, /, 3. fenatus, 

us, 4 m. contra, Antonias, /, 2. m. 
Fortuna, a, 1 /. vefter, tra, trum. invito, avi, 1. tu, ad, 

otium, i, 2 n. et, dignitas, ails, 3 /. 
Agnofco, ovi, 3. animus, i, 2 m. tuus, a, urn. erga, ego, 

ante, bellum, i, 2 n. civilis, e, adj. 



RULE XLIII. 

Dico, ixi, 3. de, natura, <r, 1 /. bellum, /', 2 n. 

Nequeo, ivi, 4. video, di, 2. ille, fine, dolor, oris, 3 /w. 

maximus, #, um. 
Dico, ixi, 3. cado, cecidi, 3. ex, equus, /, 2 f/z. fuus, a, #w, 
Vereor, vtritus /urn, 2. dico, ixi, 3. de, ego, ipfe, apud, 

tu. 
Sufcipio, epi, 3. negotium, t\ 2 n. fine, mora, a, 1 /. ul- 

lus, a, um. 
Capio, epi, 3. arm a, orum, 2 n. pL pro, falus, utis, $f. 

communis, e. 
Cogito, avi, 1. de, tu, et, liberi, orum, 2 m. pi. 
Frater, tris, 3 m. decerno, crevi, 3. pro, equitas, atis, $f 

et, prudentia, a, if. fuus, a, um. 
Omnis, e. bonus, a, um. genus, eris, 3 n. omnis, e. et, or- 

do, inis, 3 m. conjungo, unxi, 3. falus, utis, 3 f. cum, 

fuus, a, urn, 
Dico, ixi, 3. cum, vox, ocis, 3/. fupprefTus, a, um. pari^ 

de, fcelus, eris, 3 n. Lentulus,V, 2 m. de, audacia, <z, if 

confpirator, oris, 3 w. omnis, e. 
In, tenebras, #n/?w, 1 f pi. tantus, a, urn. error,: oris, 3 w». 

et, ignorantia, a, 1 y*. pnefero, full, irr. lumen, inis, 3 n< 

clarus, a, urn. mens, entis, 3/. 
Repono, fui, 3. caufa, a, 1 /. totus, a, urn. in, manfue- 

tudo, inis, $ f. et, humanitas, aiis, 3/. vefter. 
Conjungo, z/wxi, 3. caufa, a, if. meus, a, urn. cum, falus, 

utis, 3/. communis, e. 
Sum, tribunus, i, 2 m. miles, itis, 3 c. in ; Macedonia, 

*, if 



32 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Sextius followed Anthony with that army with the great- 
eft hafte. 

An incredible multitude came together into the capitol, 
from the whole city, and all Italy. 



CHAPTER X. 

He defires to make progrefs in learning. 
The kinedom is in the power cf the enemy- 
* He put an end to a very great war in Africa. 

The poifon flows into all parts of his body. 

Many and weighty thoughts are in my mind. 

I took the law into my hands with this difpofition. 

You chofe to go into a province. 

He placed his own family in poileflion of her farm. 

On account of fo great a difference of the men, and 
their caufes, I have behaved myfeif differently to- 
wards each of them. 

All Italy called me back to my country. 

I was unwilling to undertake the affair, againft an 
armed force, without the protection cf the people. 

A Have of Clodius has been feized in the temple of 

Caftor. « 

He endeavoured to make an attack upon the province 

of Brutus with an army. 

They reduced the moil warlike nations under the pow- 
er of this empire. 

We will fupport our dignity in the fenate. 

The fhepherds came under the mountains with their 
flocks. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 33 

Sextius, 1, 2 m. confequor, utus fum, 3. Anton! us, r, 2 m. 

cum, exercitus, z/x, 4 m. ille, celeritas, #/;>, jy*. fum- 

mus, #, ww. 
Multitude, inis, 3 /. incredibilis, <•. convenio, i, 4. in, 

capitolium, i, 2 ;/. ex, omnis, c. civitas, atis, 3 y. et, 

Italia, a, 1 y. cunctus, a$ urn. 



RULE XLIV. 

Cupio, zW, 4. progreTus, »/, 4 01. in, liters, tfrz/m, 1 y. />/. 
Regnum, z, 2 n. fum, in, poteftas, atis, $f. hoftis, is, 3 r. 
Conficio, £<:i, 3. bellum, /, 2 w. maximus, #, um. in, Afri- 
ca, <*, 1 f. 
Venenum, f, 2 a. permano, aw, 1. in, pars, artis, 3/. om- 
nis, f. corpus, oris, 3 /z. 
Cogitatio, onis, 3 /. multus, <i, um. et, gravis, <*. fum, in, 

animus, i, 2 w. meus, a, um. 
Sumo, umpfi, 3. lex, egls, 3 y. in, manus, us, 4/. hie, 

animus, i, 2 m. 
Volo, ui, irr. eo, vol, 4. in, provincia, a, 1 y. 
Colloco, avi, 1. familia, ^, 1 f fuus, #, «w. in, poffeffio, 

onis, $f. fundum, i, 2 n. is, *Y7, ir/. 
Propter, diffimilitudo, hits, 3 y. tantus, a, um. homo, 

inis, 3 c. et, caufa, ^, 1 f. praebeo, ui, 2. ego ; diiTimi- 

lis, e. in, uterque, traque, truntque. 
Italia, £, if cunctus, a, um\ revoco, avi, 1. ego, in, pa- 

tria, a, 1 f 
Nolo, irr. fufcipio, epi, 3. c?aifa, a, if. contra, vis, vis, 

3/. armatus, a, um. fine, praefidium, L 2 n. populus, 

f, 2 m. 
Servus, i, 2 m. Clodius, /, 2 m. comprehendo, di, 3. in, 

tern plum, i, 2 n. Caftor, oris, 3 m, 
Conor, uius fum, 1. facio, ecf, 3. impetus, us, 4 m. in, 

provincia, a, 1 /. Brutus, i, 2 zw. cum, exercitus,' 

zap, 4 w. 
Redigo, £§7, 3. gens, entis, 3 f. bcllicofus, a, um. in, ditio, 

onis, 3 f. hie, imperium, 7, 2 «. 
Ego, retineo, z/i, 2. dignitas, #/«, 3^. in, fenatus, us, 4 zw. 
Paftor, oris, 3 m. venio, vVft/, 4. fub, mons, o^//V, 3 m. 

cum, grex, ovV, 3 m. fuus, #, urn. 



34 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

The giants were buried under great mountains. 

The fnow falls upon the hills. 

The foldiers fat down upon the grafs, nigh the fhore. 

The £irls danced under a tree* 



CHAPTER XL 

There will be a great difpute among thofe whofiiall be' 

born, as there has been among us. 
The careful hufbandman plants trees of which he will 

never fee the fruits. 
I have read your letter, in which I perceive your fin- 

gular affection for me. 
I received a letter from Dolabella, of which I have fent 

a copy. 
Confider this animal which we call man. 

Of fo many different kinds, there is no animal but man 
which has any knowledge of God. 

Who ever has been found that blamed my confulfhip, 

except Clodius ? 
They coiled many things which have been faid in thofe 

boohs. 
Thofe things are defired which are according to our 

nature. 
They fuppofed that the man who was eminent for wif- 

dom, had been a fcholar of Pythagoras. 
Dicaearchus has written three books which are called 

Lefbiachs. 
I will fend you the orations, both thofe you defire, and 
* fome more. 
There is now no nation which we may fear. 
Let us b^gin from that which I firif laid down* 
It is ridiculous to feek after what we cannot attain. 

They are happy whom no fears affright. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 35 

Cigas, anlisy 3 m. fepelio, • ivl, 4. fub, ingcns, fir, adj. 

monSj on/ is, 3 m. 
Nix, w/^/j-, 3/. cado, cecldi, 3. fuper, collis* ;//, 3 m. 
Miles, itis, 3 m. ctifeumbo, cului, 3. fuper, gramen, tmt t 

3 a. fubter, littus, otis,/$ n. 
Puclla, a, if. falto, at», I. fub, arbor, oris, 3/- 



RUL"E LVII. 

JSum, diffentio, 0^4 3 /. magnu?, a, um. inter, is, qui, 
nafcor, at us fum, 3. ilcut, fum, inter, ego. 

Agricola, a, 1 w. diligens, fero, fevl, 3. arbor, oris, $f. 
qui, ipfe, nunquarp, afplcio, xi, 3. bacca, ^, if. 

Lego, literae, arum, 1 f pi. tuus, in, qui, recognofco, ovi, 
3. amor, oris, 3 m. miriflcus, a, um. tuus, in, ego. 

Accipio, epiyg* liters, Dolabella, a, 1 m. qui, mitto, 
If, 3. exempluin, }, 2 n. 

Video, di, 2. hie, animal, alls, 3 //. qui, veco, avh *• 

homo, Inis, 3 c. 
-Ex,, tot, genus, ais, 3 ti. varius, a, um. nullus, a, um. 
fum, animal, prSeter, homo, qui, habeo ul, 2. notitia, 
(B, 1 f. aliquis, qua, quid. Deus, *, Irr. 

Quis ? invenio, van. qui, vitupero, avl, 1. meus,. coniula- 
tas, us, 4 m. praeter, Clodius, 1, 2 m. 

Colligo, egl, 3. mukus, a, um. qui, dico, Ixl, 3. in? hie, li- 
ber, i, 2 m. 

Is, appeto, ivl, 3. qui, fum, fecundum, natura, a, 1 f. 

Credo, didl, 3. is, qui, excello, ul, 3. fapientia, <z, 1 f 

fum, auditor, oris, 3 m. Pythagoras, e, 1 m. 
Dicsearchus, i, 2 m. fcribo, ipf, 3. tres, irr. liber, /7, 

2 m. qui, vceor, Lefbiafus, a, um. 
Mitto> oratiuncula, e, 1 f. et, qui, poftulo, avl, 1. et, 

plus, etiam. 
Jam, fum, natio, onts, 3/. nullus, qui, pertimefco. 
Ordior, orfus fum, 4. ab, is, qui, primum, pono,y^/, 3. 
+ Sum, ridiculus, a, um. qusero, frol, 3. is, qui, non, pot 

fum, habeo, ul, 2. 
Ille, fum, beatus, a, um. qui, timor, oris, 3 m. terreo 5 

ui, 2. 



3 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

We are not thofe to whom .nothing appears to be true. 

There are many things probable, by which the life of a 

wife man ought to be regulated. 
I fee nothing elie which we may be able to do. 

CHAPTER XII. 

She does not fear your filent thoughts. 

Pompey very greatly approved of my confulihip. 

I love the man greatly. 

You indeed alledge a probable rcafon. 

You will eafily avoid hatred. 

Some one will fay, Is this then your inftrudtion ? do 

you fo teach the young men ? 
I willingly except and .diftinguifh thefe men. 

They have defired great things, and very much to be ex- 
pected. 

Yet he praifed them very greatly. 

I wiih I could eafily find cut the truth. 

My letters are not of that fort that I may dare trufl them 
inccnfiderately.. 

The tribune elect of the people loves me very well. 

Both himfelf and his friends, and many afterwards, have 

been the defended of that opinion. 
That is molt ufual. 

But if we would determine truly. < 

The divorce of Mucia is ilrongly approved of. 

He was afterwards made praetor and conful. 

What the caufe might have been I mail fee hereafter. 
The greatnefs of his genius wanted not the inftruclion 
of practice. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 37 

Non, fum, is, qui, nihil, videor, vifus /um, 2. fum, verus, 

a, um. 
'Sum, multus, a, um. probabilis, e. qui, vita, a, i f. fa- 

piens debeo, uu rego, cxi, 3. 
Video, di, 2. nihil, alms, a, ud. qui, poflum, facio, eci, 3, 



RULE XXXIX. 

Non, timefco,.w/, 3. cogitatio, onis, 3/. vefter, tra, trum. 
tacitus, a 9 um. 

Pompeius, s, 2 m. maxime, probo, avi, 1. confulatus, us, 
4 m. meus, a 9 um. 

Diligo, exi 9 3. homo, our, 3 a valde. 

Tu, quidem, afFero, attuli 9 irr. caufa, a, if probabilis, e. 

Facile, vito, avi 9 1. odium, /, 2 n. 

/Aliquis, a 9 id. dico, ixi 9 3. Sum, hie, igitur, difciplina, a, 
1 f. tuus, a, um P Sic, inftituo, ui 9 3. juvenis, /V, 3 r r* 

Libenter, excipio, epi, 3. et, fecerno, fecrevi, 3. homo* 
i«//, 3 c. hie. 

Concupifco, /W, 3. res, ei, 5 f. magnus, a, um. et, mag- 
nopere, expeclandus, a, um. 

Tamen, laudo, avi, 1. is, ea 9 id. maxime. 

Utinam, facile, poffum, invenio, eni 9 4. verus, a, um. 

Litene, arum, 1 f. meus, a 9 um. non, fum, is, ea 9 id. ge- 
nus, eris 9 2 n. ut, audeo, aufus fum, 2. committo, ift 9 3. 
is, temere. 

Tribunus, /, 2 m. plebs, ebis, 3 f. defignatus, a, urn. di- 
ligo, exi, 3. ego, valde. 

Et, ipfe, a 9 um. et, amicus, /, 2 w. is^et, multus, a 9 um. 



poftea, fum, defenfor, oris, 3 m. {enfia, a, 1 /. hic^* ■ 
Is, plerumque, contingo, g\, 3. A 

~Si, vero, volo, irr. judico, avi 9 1. vere. 
Divortium, /, 2 n. Mucia, ce 9 1 f. vehementer, probo, 

avi, 1. 
Poftea, fio, fadus fum, irr. prxtov, oris, 3 m. et, confirl f 

ulis, 3 m. 
Quis, caufa, a, if. fum, video, vidi, 2. mox. 
jMagnitudo, «w, 3/. ingenium, f, 2 /?. non, defidero, avi^ 

A* difciplina, a, if. ufus, us, 4 m. 
E 



3 8 AN INTRODUCTION TO 



SHORT EXERCISES. 

RULE I. 

OTHO, a brave man, my friend, reflored dignity. 
We have fent a conful, a very brave man, with 

an army. 
Philofophy, the mother of all the arts, is the invention 

of the Gods. 
Let us confider nothing evil which is appointed either 

bv the immortal Gods, or by nature, the parent of 

all ; 
What (hail I fay. to. my children, who regard you as 

another parent ? 
We have the conful's friends, and Furnius, the tribune 

of the people, on our fide. 
How often have you endeavoured to kill me when I 

was conful elect ! how often when conful ! 
Cato calls Murena a dancer. 
Philofophers, the teachers of virtue, have been foundi 

who fay that pain is the completion of evil. 
Brutus, the noble founder of your family, freed his 

country. 
The philofophers call all difturbances of the mind dif- 

eafes. 
There is one refource, ftudy and reading. 
Your letters have made me a complete general, 

RULE II. 

I will now add a few words to the reft of your difcourfe. 
We defire to find the truth, without any contention. 
Right reafon invites thofe who are in their fenfes, to 

juflice, equity, fidelity. 
There remains one kind of cenfurers. 
Death is fhameful in flight, glorious in victory. 

RULE III, 

The liberty of the Roman people is at ftake. 

What tyrant has forbidden us to pity the unfortunate i 

The inclinations of the citizens were different. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. Sf 



o 



SHORT EXEPvCISES. 

RULE I. 

THO, vir fortis, meus neceffarius, rcftituo dignitas. 
Mitto conful, vir fortiflimus, cum exercitus. 



Philofophia, mater omnis ars, Aim inventum Deus. 

Dugo nihil in malum qui fom conftitutus, vel a Dii im- 
mortalis, vel a natura, parens omnis. 

Quis refpondeo liberi meus, qui puto tu p'arens alter l&**r**™ 

Habeo conful amicus, et Furnius, tribunus plebs, nofler. 

Quoties tu volo interficio ego defignatus ! quoties conful ! 

Cato appello Murena faltator. 

Philofophus, magifter virtus, invenio, qui dico dolor fum- 

mum malum. 
Brutus, praeclarus auftornobiiitas tuus, libero patria. 

Philofophus appello perturbatio omnis animus morbus. - 

Sum unus perfugium, doclrina et literae. 
Liters tuus reddo ego dux fummus. 

RULE IL 

Nunc dico pauci ad reliquus oratio tuus» 

Volo invenio verus, fine ullus contentio. 

Ratio verus invito bene fenus, ad juftitia, equitas, fides. 

Refto unus genus reprehenfor. 

Mors fum faedus in fuga, gloriofus in vicloria. 

RULE III. 

Libertas populus Romanus ago. 
Quis tyrannus veto lugeo mifer. 
Voluntas civis fum diverfus. 



4© AN INTRODUCTION TOP 

Fe.-.r 

Tin 

Oi:v 

No one interrupts mc ; all refpeQ me. 

The dicr.ity. 

The rencSBbr^.c. 

ianL 
The qtteftioo di 

A dispute about wc rds difturbs men. 
He that is po< 3 a good man, although he can- 

DOi return - olj can ackaowl 

comfort. 

RULE IV. 

Do you think that :uch eicelk: 
: reafon ? 

All that a happy life 

I think it not improper that I fhould write hat 

I think upon that adfiui 
I deilre that you would un derft a ad this. 
Yon 07 fehal I dare fay what I think. 

you can very eaiily that. 

Do ;■ ; 
You know that I think the very fame thing. 

rience our file r 
mpofed of body and mi: 

- engraven on the mind, 

itice fhould be obferved to- 
perfons. 
mefnl that philofophers fhould doubt 
not doubt of £ 

RULE V. 

to bejnade tribune of the people, 
is a cert a 1 . 1 eillon of the n; 

He was the common enemy of all men» 

xlvcti the r.ucie or" . - - 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 41 

Animal omnis Jiligo fui ipic. 

Timor facio tu bonus. 

Dies augeo deliderium is. 

Ratio noiler conlentio oratio pugno. 

Nemo interpello, omnis diligo ego. 

Dignitas, honor Ccefar ago. 

Recordatio fervitus facio libertas jucundus. 

Quaeftio cado. 

Controverfia verbum torqueo homo. 

Ille inops fi fum bonus vir, etiam fi non poflum refero 

gratia, certe poflum habeo. 
iEtas ipfe affero ego iblatium. 

RULE IV. 

Tu cenfeo tarn egregius homo gero res tantus fine 

caulk ? 
Omnis ille antiquus philofophia fentio vita beatus pono 

in virtus unus. 
Non puto ium in alienus ego fcribo ad tu quis fentio de 

res is, 
Volo tu intelligo hie. 
Nego ego audeo qui fentio dico. 
Cenfeo tu facillime pofium explano is. 
Genfeo ego adeone deliro ? 
Scio ego fentio ifte idem. 
Arbitror tu malo experior taciturnitas nofter. 
Sum perfpicuus homo confto e corpus et animus. 
Omnis innatus fum*. et in anima quali infculptus, Deus 

Ium. 
Memini juilitia fum fervandus et adverfus infinras. 

Nonne fum turpi s philofophus dubito hie qui ne ruin- 
cus quidem dubito ? 

RULE V. s 

Plane cupio ho tribunus pleb?. 
Vultus fum fermo quidem tacitus mens. 
Uftts fum bonus magifter. 
Sum communis inimicus omnis* 
Etiam nomen pax fum dulcis. 



42 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

All flavery is wretched. 

What I thought would be a pleafure, that has been a 

deftruction. 
They were then called the noMes. 
Should I fo act as to be called a traitor to the flate ? 
Nothing is generous which is not juft. 
I love your little daughter, and know for certain that 

Hie is lovely. 
A worthy man with great difficulty fufpects that others 

are wicked. 
This I afk, Why have you faid that I am a ftranger ? . 

RULE VI. 

Great is the power of confcience. 

There was a difpute of one day uppn that one fubjedh . 
I know not what the opinion of the people is of me. 
The proof of eloquence is the approbation of the audi- 
ence. 
It is indeed a fault to dread the diflblution of our na- 
ture fo ftrongly. 
The privation- of every pain is rightly called pleafure. 
The whole life of philoibphers is a meditation on death. 
The body is indeed as it were a veflel, or a certain re- 
ceptacle of the foul. 
You feem to follow the opinion of Epicharmus. . 
Virtue is the perfection of reafon. 
Great is the force of cuftom. 
Fear is a bad fecurity of long life. 
A fudden ftorm at fea frightens failors more than one 

that had been forefeen. 
I have fent you the commentary of my confulfhip in 

Greek. 
I think that pain is the greateft of evils. 
This is the cuftom of mathematicians, not of philofo- 

phers. f 

That part of your Mter was by no means necefTary. 
My fpeech alienated the affection of Pompey from me. 
Our age has feen many very famous victories of the 

greateft commanders. 
The life of men is particularly haraffed by their ignd- _ 

ranee of things good and evil. 
Antonius fent me a copy of C«far's letter to him. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 4) 

Omnis fervitus fu m mifcr. 

Quod puto fore gaudiam, is exifto .exitium. 

Ifte turn optimas vocor. 

Ego committo ut nominor prcclitor rcs-publi^i 
Nihil {\\m liberalis qui non fum jjftus. 
Amo filiola tuns, et certo fcio fum amabili$. 

Vir'optimus difficillirne fafpicor alius fum impro'ous* 

Ilk qua^fo, Cur, dicQ ego fum peregrinus ? 

RULE VL- 

Magnus fum vis confcientia.- 
Sum difputatio dies unus de hie unus res. 
Nefcio qui fum opinio populus de ego. 
EfFeclus eloquentia fum approbatio audiens. 

Sum quidem.in vitium perhorrefco diffolutio natura. , 

tarn valde. 
Privatio omnis dolor re&e nominor voluptas. 
Vita totus philofophus firm commentatio mors. 
Corpus fum quidem .quail vas, et aliquis receptaculum 

animus, 
Videor fequor fentenia Epicharmus. 
Virtus fum perfe&io ratio. . 
Magnus fum vis confuetudo. 
Metus fum mains. jcuflos diuturnitas. 
Subitus tempeftas mare terreo navigans vehementms . 

quam ante provifus. 
Mitto ad tu commentarium confulatus mens compontus , 

Graece. 
Exiftimo dolor magnus malum omnis.. , 

Ifte fum mos mathematicus, non philpfophus. 

Ilk pars epiftola tuus fum .mi.nime nec-e (farms. 
Oratio meus alieno voluntas Pompeius a ego. 
iEtasnofter video vi&oria multus clarus imperator fum- _ 

mus. 
Vita homo maxime vexo ignoratio res bonus et malus. 

Ji \to:\\ us mitto ad ego exemplum liters Caefar ad ful 



44 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Let us confider that the bodies of brave men are mor- 
tal, but that their living fouls, and the glory of vir- 
tue, are immortal. 

You fee the affair, and the whole of the bufmefs. 

I dread the crime of ingratitude. k 

The weaknefs of the body hindered not the vigour of 
the mind. 

Here we killed a great number of the enemy. 

Will you mention your coniulfhip ? 

The life of all perfons depends on the life of you alone. 

After being received with the magnificence of a king, 
we continued our difcourfe till late at night. 

Frugality is the .virtue of a private man, not of a king. 

A comfuli is, wanting who can check the fury of the tri- 
bunes by his eloquence. . 

I aifume to myfelf a father's authority and fe verity. 

I think Fibrenus is the name of that other river. 

There is a likenefs of man to God. 

He has been found an enemy to nature and humanity. 

RULE VII. 

The Conful himfelf a man of a little and mean mind. 
They are endowed with the bed difpofition, the greateft 

wifdom, the mofl perfect harmony. 
Oppianicus himfelf was of a cruel and fevere difpofition. 
Amyntas is the chief perfon of that city, in family, rank 

efteem, and fortune. 
Turranius, a man of the higheil virtue and integrity, 

was of the fame opinion. 
I love a boy of excellent wit. 
A fervant of a ftubborn ipirit fhall be beaten. 
Our nation has a government of very great clemency. 
The mafter eaiily teaches boys of ingenious difpofitions» 
Gicero was a man of a mild difpofition. 
Catiline was a man of great vigour of mind. 
Qfaces, the Parthian general, a man of great authority, 

received a wound. 
The foldier was maimed in his limbs. 
She walks a goddefs in appearance. 
Here firft he places four bullocks, black as to their 

backs. 
A laurel facred as to its boughs» 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 4» 

Cogilo corpus vir fortis fum mortalis, vero motus ani* 
mus, et gloria virtus, fum immortalis, 

Video res, et fumma negotium. 
Horreo crimen animus ingratus. 
Infirmitas corpus non impedio vis animus. 

Hie caedo magnus numerus hoftis. 

Til facio mentio confulat us tuus ? 

Vita omnis pendeo ex vita tu unus. 

Poll acceptus regius apparatus, produce fermo in mul- 

tus nox. 
Frugalitas eft virtus privatus, non regius. 
Conful quaeror qui comprimo furor tribunitius dico; 

Sufcipio ego patrius authoritas et feveritas. 
Opinor Fibrenus nomen ille alter fiumen. 
Sum fimilitudo homo Deus. 
Invenio inimicus natura et humanitas. 

RULE VIL 

Conful ipfe, parvus animus et pravus: 

Sum optimus animus, fummus confiliunT, .fingularis con- 

cordia. 
Oppianicus ipfe fum immanis que acerbus natura. 
Amyntas^furn princeps is civitas, genus, honor, exifii- 

matio, fortuna. 
Turranius, homo fuminus integritas atque innocentia* 

fum in idem fententia,- 
Amo puer ingenium praeclarus. 
Scrvus animus contumax vapulo. 
Natio nofter habeo imperium dementia fummus. 
Magifter facile doceo puer ingenium acutus. 
Cicero fum vir mitis ingenium. 
Catilina ium vir magnus vis animus. 
Ofaces, dux Parthus, magnus authoritas, vulnus accipio. 

Miles fum frafrus membrum. 

Incedo dea os. 

Quatuor hie primum nigrans tergum juvencus con- 

llituo. 
Laurus facer coma. 



46 AN INTRODUCTION TC 

RULE VIII. 

1 wifli I had leifure enough to have it in ? my power t# 

recite the decree of the Smymea:' 
In the greateft misfortunes I feem to have acquired 

thus much good. 
It is moil equitable that you bring here no prejudices. 
There is much- mifchief in example. 
Neither did I 'believe it; but certainly there was fome 

fitch report. 
I will inform you when I fhall have any news. 
Glory contains more trouble than pleafure. 

RULE IX. 

Magi Urates are neceflary, without whofe prudence and 

diligence the flate could not exift. 
There is need of your attention, influence and pru- 

dence. 
There is no occafion for a long fpeech. 
The next thing is, that we mould inquire whether there 

be any occafion for a fleet or no. 
There is no occafion for difputes. 
What occafion was there for letters of that fort which 

you fent to him ? 
Where the proofs of fafts are at hand, there 5s no qcca- 

fion for words. 

RULE X. 

She defired that others mould be ignorant of her mif- 

fortune. 
If you are defirous of glory, I think you may feek for 

other honours. 
He denied that he was ever defirous of a triumph. 
The lateft pofterity will ever remember this affair. 

Do not think me unmindful of your commands. 

Truly I did not know that you were fo fkilful in mili- 
tary affairs. 

The Greeks are more "defirous of difputing than of the 
truth. 

I knew Hortenfius was very fond of you. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. $7 

RULE VIII. 

Volo habeo tantus otium, ut poffum recito ipfephifma 

Smyrnaeus. 
In malum magnus videor aflequor hie tantus bonum. 

Sum equus ut afFero ne quis praejudicatus. 
Sum multus malum in exemplum. 
Neque credo, fed certe fum aliquis fermo. 

Narro cum habeo aliquis novus. 

Gloria habeo plus moleftio quam voluptas. 

RULE IX. 

Sum opus magiflratus, fine qui prudentia et diligentia, 

civitas non poifum fum. 
Sum opus tuus aifiduitas, prudentia gratia. 

Nihil opus fum oratio longus. 

Prornmus fum, ut qusero fum opus.elaflis necne. 

Nihil fum opus lis. 

Quis opus fum ejufmodi literae qui mitto ad is ? 

Ubi teflimonium res adfum, non opus fum verbum. 



RULE X. 

Cupio easterns fum igriarus fuus malum. 

Si fum cupidus gloria, cenfeo quasro alius ornamentunu 

"Nego fui unquam fum cupidus triumphus. 

Poiteritas omnis feculum nunquam fum immemor hie 

res. 
*Ne puto ego immemor mandatum tuurr*. 
Plane nefcio tu tam.peritus fum res militaris. 

Graecus fum cupidus contentio quam Veritas, 

Cognofco Hortenfius percupidus ttt« 



4S AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Ye have always been defirous of glory, and greedy af- 
ter praife, beyond other nations. 

I never was fo long ignorant of my own affairs. 

l)o I feem fo forgetful of ray awn firmnefs, fo unmind- 
ful of my own actions ? 

They were not fo mindful of my merit, as they were 
enemies of my glory. 

iElius was learnedly fkilful in antiquities and the old 
writers. 

He was a wife man, and fkilful in many things. 

All men hate him who is unmindful of a favour. 

Nature has given man a mind capable of every virtue. 

RULE XL 

There is no one of any nation who cannot attain to 

virtue, having procured a guide. 
As foon as there fhall be any thing certain, I will write 

to you. 
"Who of the Greek rhetoricians ever drew any thing 

from Thucydides ? 
I ceafed to be offended, and made myfelf one of thofe 

who came to. the waters. 
Who of the college was prefent ? 
He was made tribune of the people firft amongft tlae 

moll noble men. 
The Peripatetics firft of all the philofophers taught thefo 

things. 
He was made tribune of the people firft: amongft the 

moft honourable men. 
One of the two muft neceffarily take place. 
It is the the third year from his death. 
That was the fecond of the three. 

RULE XIL 

I do not fee why the fon might not have been like the 

father. 
His death was correfpondent to his life, fpent in the moft 

virtuous and honourable manner. 
Indeed I think it neceffary for me to philofophife. 
Yon have done what is agreeable to me, by fending b$£ 

Serapion's book. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 49 

Semper fum appetens gloria, atque avidus laus, praetar 

easterns gens. 
Nunquam fum tam diu ignarus res meus. 
Adeone videor oblitus conftantia meus, adeone imme- 

mor res geftus meus ? 
Non tam memor fum virtus meus, quam inimicus laus. 

iElius fum liters peritus antiquitas et vetus fcriptor- 

Sum fapiens homo, ac peritus multus res. 

Omnis odi immemor beneficium. 

Nafura do homo mens capax virtus omnis. 

RULE XL 

Nee fum quifquam ullus gens qui non pofTum perveni* 

ad virtus, naclus dux. 
Simulfum quis certus, fcribo ad tu. 

Quis Grascus rhetor unquam duco quifquam a Thu- 

cydides ? 
Defifto ftomachor, et facio ego unus ex is qui venio ad 

aqua. 
Quis de collegium adfum ? 
Fio tribunus plebs primus inter homo ncbilis. 

Psripateticus primus ex omnis philofophus hie doceo, 

Fio tribunus plebs primus inter homo honorabilis. 

Alter duo fum neceffe. % 

Sum tertius annus a mors ille. 

Is fecundus fum de tres. * 

RULE XII. 

Non video cur filius non pofium fum fimilis pater. 

Is mors fum confentaneus vita, actus fancliffime honef- 

tiffimeque. 
Qui Jem arbitror fum neceffe ego philofophor. 
.Facio pergratus ego, quod mittQ liber Seiapion ad 

ego, 

F 



5 o AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Your difcourfe againft Epicurus was pleafmg to our 

friend Balbus. 
The enemy is at Cyreftica, which part of Syria adjoins 

to my province. 
Why have you been fo familiar with him as to lend him 

money. 
I think nothing difficult to a lover. 
1 fear left the name of philofophy may be hateful to 

fome good men. 
Men can be very ufeful to men. 
In every difputation we fhould inquire what is moil like 

the truth. 
Ye ought to think he had been like himfelf in the other 

parts of his life. 
Nor indeed do I underftand why Epicurus rather chofe 

to fay that the God are like men, than that men arc 

like the Gods. 
Why do you always defend men unlike yourfelf ? 
Why do you not favour thofe, commend thofe, whom 

you wifli your fon to be like ? 
This inquiry is common to all philofophers. 
This evil is common to me with every one. 
Our country, which is the common parent of us all, 

hates and fears you. 
Maximus did nothing contrary to his honour. 
Ignorance of things is inconiiftent with the nature of 

the Gods. 
You approve of thofe things which are inconfiftent 

both with the general tranquillity and your own dig- 
nity. 
This action is peculiar to Csefar alone. 
It is common to all animals to live according to nature. 
You do nothing inconfiftent with our friendfhip, and the 

opinion of that worthy man your father, concerning 

me. 
I am confcious to myfelf that I was never too defirous 

of life. 
It is peculiar to a wife man to do nothing which he 

may repent of. 
Scipio feems to me born for the definition of Carthage* 
The necks of oxen are framed for the yoke. 
The feafon is not fit to catch mackarel. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 51 

Sermo tuus contra Epicurus fum jucundus Balbus nof- 

ter. 
Hoftis fum in Cyreftica, qui pars Syria proximus fum 

provincia me us. 
Cur fum tarn familiaris hie ut commodo aurum. 

Pato nihil difficilis amans. 

Verecr ne nomen philofophia fum invifus quidam vir bo- 
nus. 
Homo poflum fum maxime utilis homo. 
lir omnis difputatio qu'eero quis fum fimilis verus. 

Tu debeo exiftimo is fimilis f am fui in cseterus pars vita. 

Nee veto intelligo cur Epicurus malo dico Deus fimilis 
homo, quam homo Deiis. 

Cur femper defendo ditfimiHs tu ? 

Cur non faveo is, laudo is, qui volo filius tuus fum 

fimilis ? 
Kk quaeftio eft communis omnis philofophus. 
Hie malum fum communis ego cum omnis. 
Patria, qui fum communis parens omnis ego, odi ac 

metuo tu. 
Maximus facio nihil alienus fuus virtus. 
Ignoratio res fum alienus natura Deus. 

Probo is qui fum inimicus et otium communis et dig- 
nitas tuus. 

Hie res fum proprius Caefar unus. 
Sum communis animal omnis vivo fecundum natura. 
Facio nihil alienus neceffitudo nofter, que judicium pa- 
ter tuus fummus vir, de me. 

Sum confeius ego ego nunquam fum nirnis cupidus 

vita. 
Sum proprius fapiens facio nihil qui poffum psenitet. 

Scipio videor ego natus ad interims Carthago. 

Cervix bos natus fum ad jugum. 

Tempeftates non fum idoneus ad lacerta captandus. 



5 2 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

The works of Xenophon are very ufeful in many re- 
fpects. 

I have feemed to be vehement againfl others. 

His action was fit to move the paffions. 

He was ready for violence, prepared for fedition, fur- 
nifhed for daughter. 

As one perfon is very fubject to one particular difeafe, 
£o another perfon is very much inclined to fome par- 
ticular vices. 

I am very lazy in writing letters. 

A proper place is chofen for that bufmefs. 

I think that nothing is to be acquired by me, either to 
my honour or glory. 

The bafenefs of them all is to be blamed by me. 

Pains muft be taken to find out the truth. 

No tiling is mere pleafing to me than your kindnefs. 

I think this ought to be principally provided and 
guarded again it by the orator. 

I think that any caufe of greater confequence may be 
trufted to you. 

Although thefe things were not agreeable to me in un- 
dergoing them, yet they will be pleafing in reading 
them. 

RULE XIII. 

Philofophy is content with few judges. 

He is content with our money. 

Philippus, a man moft worthy of his father, grandfather 

and anceitors, did the fame thing. 
Thoie by whom you were declared conful, did not think 

you worthy of the light. 
He has as yet fuifered no punifhment worthy of his 

crime. 
He fays that natural riches are eafily procured, becaufe 

nature might he content with a little. 
He reded content with that victory. 
I fee nothing in this Sulla deferving hatred, many things 

worthy of companion. 
Is there nothing in thefe things which we may judge 

worthy of an ingenuous mind ? 
I think this fhameful, and unworthy of me. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 53 

Liber Xenophon fum perutilis ad res multus. 

Ego videor vehemens in alius. 

Actio is fum aptus ad animus concitandus. 

Sum promptus ad vis, paratus ad feditio, expeditus ad 

casdes. 
Ut alius propenfus ad alius morbus, fie alius proclivis 

ad alius vitium. 

Sum pigerrimus ad litene fcribendus. 

Locus opportunus fum captus ad is res. 

Puto nihil acquirendus ego, neque ad honor, neque ad 

gloria. 
Turpitudo is omnis fum accufabilis ego. 
Vis fum adhibendus Veritas. 
Nihil amabilis ego officium tuum. 
Ego puto hie maxime cavendus ct providenJus orator. 

Ego puto caufa ullus major committendus tu. 

Etfi is non fum optabilis ego in experior, tamen fum 
jucundus in lego, 



RULE XIII. 

Philofophia fum contentus paucus judex. 

Sum contentus nofter pecunia. 

Philippus, vir dignus pater, avus, majores, facio idem. 

Is a qui dico conful, non puto tu dignus lux. 

Adhuc fufcipio poena nullus dignus crimen. 

Dico naturalis divitise fum parabalis, quod natura fum 

contentus parvus. 
Quiefco contentus h vicloria. 
Video nihil in hie Sulla dignus odium, multus dignus 

mifericordia. 
Nihil fum in hie res qui duco fum dignus mens liber ? 

Puto hie turpis, et indignus ego» 

I 2 



54 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

He was a young man poffeffed of the beft accomplilli- 
ments. 

He was a wife man, and endued with a certain lofty- 
mind. 

I did not attempt to move the companion of others, be- 
fore I was caught myfelf. 

Relying on your difcernment, I fay lefs than the caufc 
requires. 

Give that attention and care which is moft worthy of 
your virtue. 

RULE- XIV. 

What word is there in thofe letters which is not full of 

humanity, duty, benevolence ? 
The fouls of brutes are without reafon. 
A mind perfectly and abfolutely free from uneafmefs, 

makes men happy. 
We have not feen a.fword out of the fcabbard in the 

city. 
His countenance was full of fury, his eyes of wickednefs, 

his difcourfe of infolence. 
No part of his life was free from the greateft turpitude» 
The houfe was full of the beft emboli plate. 
All things honourable are replete with joy. 
The haven is very full of fhips. 

The mind, during fleep, is without fenfation and cares. 
This place is never free from the danger of death. 
I perceive that you will be free from all danger. 

RULE XV. 

It is the mark of a brave mind not to be difturbed in 
adverfity. 

It is a wife man's bufinefs to determine who may be a 
wife man. 

I judged it to be the duty of my friendfhip not to be 
filent in your great affliction. 

He thought it hardly becoming him to engage in an af- 
fair of fo much confequence. 

It is not becoming your gravity and wifdom to be inv 
moderately affected at your misfortune. 

The Pythagoreans relate, that the Orphian poem wa* 
the work of ope Cecrops% 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. . 55 

Sum adolefcens praeditus bonus ars. 

Sum homo faplens, ct praeditus.quidem altus mens. 

Non conor commoveo mifericordia" alius, priufquam ipfe 

fum captus mifericordia. 
Fretus vefter intelligentia, , differo brcvius quam caulk 

defidero. 
Sufcipio cura et cogitatio dignLflimus tuus yirtus. 

RULE XIV. . 

Qui verbum fum in ifte litcrse non plenus humanitas, 

officium, benevolentia ? 
Animus beftia fum expers ratio. 
Animus perfecte et abfolute vacuus perturbationes, eiH- . 

ciobcatus. .../;■/ ft faM 

Non video gladius vacuus vagina in ur.bs. (j^ylvr* - ' " 

Vultus fum . plenus furor, oculus- fcelus, fermo arrc- . 

gantia. 
Nullus pars is vita fum expers fummus turpitudo. 
Domus fum plenus optimus caelatus argentum. 
Omnis honeftus fum plenus gaudium. 
Portus fum pleniffimus navis. 
Animus, per fomnus, fum vacuus fenfus et cura. 
Hie locus nufquam fum vacuus periculum mors, „_ 
Video tu for^ expers omnis periculum, 

RULE XV. 
Sum fortis animus non perturbo in res afper. 

Sum fapiens ftatuo quis fum fapiens. ^ 

Statuo fum nofter neceffitudo non taceo in tuus tantus 

mceror. 
Arbitror vix fum is fufcipio tantus res. 

Non fum fapientia et gravitas tuus fero immoderatius 

cafus. 
Orphicus carmen, Pythagoricus fero, quidam fam ; 

Cecrops, 



56 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

To with for a tempeft in a calm, is th€ part of a mad- 
man ; to oppofe it by every method, of a wife one. 

It is the particular office of the magiftrate to know that 
he reprefents the perfon of the flate. 

It is the duty of a ftranger and fojourner to mind no- 
thing but his own buiinefs. 

It is your bufinefs, Cato, to look to it. 

The .wtele of this, however great it is, the whole of it, 
I fa^, is yours. 

RULE XVI. 

Thofe who ought to take compaffion on me ceafe not to i 

envy me. 
Attend, I be^g of you, and at length take compaffion on 

the all^. 
And yet he expects that they fhould take compaffion on 

him. * 
I pity his diftrefs for provifions. 
Pardon my fears, that the book has not been returned to 

you fo foon as it ought r and pity the times. 

RULE XVII. 

Let us ceafe to be offended ; let us fubmit to the times. 
There is no one who can protect himfelf againft envy, 

without your affiftance. 
Whofe command would you chiefly choofe to obey ? 
Why lhould I fpeak of all thofe who obeyed the conful's 

command I 
That fofter part of his foul fubmits to reafon, as a pru- 
dent foldier to a fevere commander. 
He obeys himfelf, and follows his own rules. 
What i tall we do, if we cannot do otherwise ? Shall we 

fubmit to the freedmen, and even to the flaves ? 
The body is to be fo exercifed and managed, that it may 

fubmit to counfel and reafon. 
It fignifies nothing to refill nature, and aim at wiiafc yo\> 

cannot attain. 
Do you know that Marcellus is angry with you ? 
He called to me, he threatened me. 
It is by no means ufual with me to be rafhly angry with 

my friends. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 57 

Opto adverfus tempefb.s in tranquillus fum demens ; 
fubvenio tempeftas quivis ratio, fapiens. 

Sum proprius munus magiftratus intelligo fui gero per- 
form ci vitas. 

Peregrinus et incola fum officium ago nihil praeter funs 
negotium. 

Eft tuus, Cato, video. 

Totus hie, quantufcunque fum, totus^ inauiim, fum 
tuus. f^.j^/fy**?' ^^f/f*** 

RULE XVI. 

Qui debeo miferecr ego non deilno invideo. 

Audio, quoefo, et aliquando mifereor focius. 

Et tamen pollulo ut mifereor fui. 

Ego mifereor efuries is, 

Ignofco nofter timor, quod liber non tarn eeleriter 
reddo tu, et mifereor temp us. 

RULE XVII, 

Defino ftomacho.r ; pareo tempus. 

Nemo fum qui poflum refiito invidia, fine vcfler fubii-. 

dium. 
Qui imperium volo potifiimum pareo \ 
Quis ego loquor de is omnis qui pareo imperium confal? 

Pars ille mollis animus fie pareo ratio, ut prudens miles 

feverus imperator. 
Ipfe obtempero fui, et pareo decretum fuus. 
Quis facio, fi aliter non poflum ? An libertinus, atque 

etiam fervus, fervio ? 
Corpus fum ita exercitandus et afficiendus, ut porTum 

obedio confilium que ratio. 
Neque attineo repugno natura, nee fequor quiiquam 

qui nequeo aflequor. 
Scio Marcellus irafcor tu ? 
Appello ego, minor ego. 
Omnino non foleo temere irafcor amicus» 



58' AN INTRODUCTION TO 

If I had not threatened the man feverely, porTcfilon oi 

the tables had not been given me. 
You fay, I have carried on great wars, and have been 

appointed to rule over provinces : fupport then a 

mind worthy of your glory. 
The fafety of his country was dearer to him than the 

fight of it. 
My books,, my ftudies, my learning, are now of no fervice 

to me. 
A difpute is fo long prudent as it is either profitable, 

or, if not profitable, not hurtful, to the (late. 
Your laft page gave me great uneafmefs. 
All thefe things are a proof that the world is governed 

by reafon. 
Thefe tilings may be a lofs and adifgrace to us all. 
This will always be profitable to the city. 
I had now no bufmefs with him. 
Eloquence then had honour. 
Are you the man whom cruelty difpleafes ? 
I beg of you to aflift thefe perfons in every particular 

your Ration will admit. 
I fear left my advice may difpleafe you. 
Atticus pleafed me molt ; or, fliall I fay ? he difpleafed 

me lead. 
It is the particular fpot and blot of this age, to envy 

merit. 
It is not allowable, for the fake of your own advantage, 

to hurt another. 
I favoured the government which I have always favour- 
ed, and your dignity and honour; 
Take care of your liealth, which as yet you have not 

fufficiently attended to, whilft you was affifting^me. 
We muft take care that the appetites obey reafon, and 

do not run before it. 
I always admired the greatnefs of your mind. 
Some accident prevented his intention. 
He affifts him in marrying his daughter. 
A man ought to admire and wifh for nothing but what 

is honourable. 
I neither flattered nor admired the good fortune of the 

man. 
My doubt feemed either to hinder my journey, or at 

Jeaft to put it off. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 59 

Nifi minor homo vehementius, nunquam poteftas fio 

ego tabula. 
■Inquam, Gero bellum magnus., ct provincia pracfum : 

gero igitur animus dignus laus. 

Salus patria fum dulcis illc quam confpe&us. 

Liber nihil, literal nihil, do&rina nihil, nunc profum 

Contentio tarn diu fum faplens, quam diu aut proficio 

aliquis, aut, fi non proficio, non obfum, civitas. 
• Poftremus tuus pagina fum magnus moleftia ego. 
Qui omnis fum lignum mundus adminiilro ratio. 

..Hie res poflum fum detrimentum et infamia omnis. 

Hie femper profum civitas. 

Jam nihil fum ego cum ille. 

Jam turn fum honor eloquentia. 

Tu fum ille qui crudelitas difpliceo ? 

J?eto a tu ut commodo hie In omnis res quantum tua 

dlgnitas patior. 
Vereor ne conClium meum difpliceo tu. 
Atticus placeo ego maxime ; vel, dico ? difpliceo mi- 

nime. 
Sum labes quidam et macula hie feculum, invideo 

virtus. 
Non licet, caufa tuus commodum, noeeo alter. 

Faveo res-publica qui femper faveo, et dignitai et glo- 
ria tuus. 

Jndulgeo valetudo tuus, qui tu adhuc non fatis fervio, 
dum defervio ego. 

Efficiendum eft ut appetitus obedlo ratio, non pra> 
curro is. \ 

Semper admiror magnitudo animus tuus. 

Aliquis cafus pnevenio confilium is. 

Adjuvo is in filia locandus. 

Oportet homo admiror et op to nihil nifi qui fum ho- 
neftus. 

Nee adulor nee admiror fortuna homo. 

Meus dubitatio videor aut impedio profeclio meus, aut 
certe retardo. 



6o AN INTRODUCTION TO 

RULE XVIIL 

You fay right, and fo the thing is. 
The voluntary virtues are fuperior to the involuntary. 
I have a great work in hand. 

No one avoids pleafune itfelf becaufe it is pleafure. 
Since I entertain this opinion. 
I will explain this argument in general. 
All men admired his diligence, acknowledged his abili- 
ties. 
Turn over that book of his, diligently, which is upon 

the foul. 
When he fays this, Know yourfelf, he fays, Know your 

own mind. 
I have now received your three letters. 
I will leave your dreams, I will proceed to your wick- 
ed neis. 
It happened very unluckily that you never faw him. 
1 earneftly expect your letters. 
I had read your letter. 

Did I not thoroughly underftand you ? or have you al- 
tered your opinion ? 
You will take care of my directions refpecting the houfc. 
Your anceftors firft conquered all Italy. 
Ye can neither be ignorant of his difpofition nor his 

power. 
.Many things in your letter pleafed me. 
I can fcarce look at the light. 
Time does not only not leflen this grief, but even increafes 

it. 
There is no one fo old, but thinks he may live a year. 

Why do not they run the fame ccurfe at this time, which 

they ran before ? 
He who runs over the (ladium, ought to endeavour to 

conquer. 

RULE XIX. 

You have a general mindful cf you, forgetful of him- 

felf. 
You direct me to reflect on what is good, to forget what 

is bad. . 



T*1E MAKING OF LATIN. tf* 

RULE XVIII. 

Reclc dico, et res fie habeo fui. 

Virtus voluntarius vinco virtus non voluntarius. 

Habeo opus magnus in manus. 

Nemo fugio ipfe voluptas, quia voluptas fum. 

Cum teneo hie fententia. 

Expono argumentum is generatim. 

Omnis admiror diligentia, agnofco ingenium. 

Evolvo diligenter^is'liber, qui fum de animus. 

Cum dico, Nofco tu ipfe, dico hie, Nofco animus tuiis. 

Jam accipio tuus tres epiftola. 

Relinquo fomnium vefter, venio ad fcelus. 

Excido perincommode quod nunquam video is. 

Valde expeclo tuus liters. 

Lego epiftola tuus. 

An ego non fatis intelligo ? an muto fententia ? 

Curo meus mandatum de domus. 

ivlajores vefter primum devinco univerfus Italia. 

Poflum nee animus is ignoro nee copia. 

Multus in .epiftola tuus dele&o ego* 

Vix poflum afpicio lux. 

Dies non modo non levo hie luctus, fed etiam augeo. 

Nemo fum tarn fenex qui non puto fui poffum vivo 

annus. 
Cur non idem- curfus hie tempus qui antea curro J 



Qui curro ftadium debeo enitor ut vinco. 

RULE XIX. 
Habeo dux memor tu, oblitus fui. 

Jubeo ego cogito bonus, oblivifcor malum. 

G 



I 



6z AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Remember that time- 

Caefar ufually forgets nothing but injuries. 

Neither have I forgot the letter you fent me. 

Do you think that I have forgotten your advice, your 

difcourfe, your politenefs ? 
Indeed I am greatly afraid of your voyage, when I re« 

member your former pailage. 
Nor is it allowable to forget Epicurus, if I may choofe 

it. 
And when they choofe to relax their minds, and indulge 

themfelves in pleafure, let them avcid intemperance, 

and remember decency. 
The city, forgetful of its flavery, lamented this one cir- 

cumftance. 

RULE XX. 

Whilft they efcape one kind of injuftice, they fall into 

another. 
Shew that death is free from every evil. 
He affured me that you were certainly free from a 

fever. 
I hope our friendfhip wants not witneffes. 
Whilft we are free from guilt, let us bear all human 

events with patience and moderation. 
How long then fhall he who exceeds all enemies be 

without die name, of an enemy ? 
Can he who. is not, want any thing ? 
As long as I fhall live I will be uneafy at nothing, 

whilft I am free from all guilt. 
You want not my prayers and entreaties. 
The one, as Ifocrates faid, wants a bridle, the other a 

fpur. 
His oration abounded with every grace. 
Do you fee that I. abound in leiiure ? 

RULE XXI. 

I fhall enjoy your difgrace. 

I will ufe another word afterwards, if I fhall find a. 

better. 
I diligently make ufe of our poets. 
Let him discharge the proper duty of pb.ilcfophy. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 63 

Recordor ifte tempus. 

Caefar ibleo oblivifcor nihil nifi injuria. 

Nee oblivifcor liters qui rnitto ad ego. 

Puto ego oblivifcor coniilium, fermo, humanitas tuus ? 

Mehercule valde timeo navigatio, recordans fuperior 

tuus tranfmifiio. 
Nee licet oblivifcor Epicurus, fi cupio. 

Atque cum relaxo animus, et do fui jucunditas volo, ca« 
veo intemperantia, et memini verecundia. 

Unus in ille^res, fervitus oblitus, civitas ingemov 



RULE XX. 
Dum vaco alter genus injuftitia, incurro in alter. 

Doceo mors careo omnis malum. 
Nuntio ego t\i plane eareo febris. 

Spero nofter iffiweitia non egeo teflis. 
Cum 'careo culpa, fero omnis humamis placate et mo- 
derate. 
■Quouique igitur is, qui fupero omnis hoflis, careo 

: Ml bonis ? 
An ne qui non firm, is poilum careo res ullus ? 
Dum fum angor nullus res, cum vaco omnis culpa* 

Non indigeo preces nofter, et cohortatio. 

Alter, ut dico Ifocrates, egeo frenum, alter calcar* 

Gratio is abundo ornamentum omnis. 
Ne video ego abundo otium ? 

RULE XXL 

Fruor tuus indignitas. 

Utor alius verbum poft, fi invenio bonus. 

Studiofe utor nofter poeta. 

Fungor proprius officium philofophia. 



64 AN INTRODUCTION TO* 

I ufe yourfelf as my guide. 

I will do the duty of an interpreter. 

He performs the duty of a good fenator. 

1" am extremely well pleafed that your uncle has dene- 

his duty. 
Why fhould I make ufe of thefe witneffeVas if the affair 

was doubtful or untrue ? 
I fhall wonder that you wasr unwilling to ufe thofe arms 

the law gave you. 
I accept your excufe which you made. 
That is every one's own which every one enjoys and 

ufes. 
Very few perfons make a good ufe of cunning. 
That which makes ufe of reafon is fuperior to that 

which does not make ufe of reafon. 
God has not permitted us to know thefe things, but 

only .to enjoy them.: 
ReflecY that both in our Rate and others, which have ac- 
quired great power, fuch accidents have happened. 
If you are certain that you can. obtain that kingdom, 

you ihould not hefitate. 
Let us fubdue their hatred, and obtain peace. 
Paulus obtained all the treafure of the Macedonians. 
Aratus, having gone from Argos to S icy on, got polTef- 

fion of the city by entering privately. 

RULE XXII.. 

I have taken care of your bufmefs. 

I wifh that thing may be a fatisfacHon to him. . - 

Let him have myfelf for his example. 

Apply then for that office in which you can be of great 

fervice to me. 
He was of great ufe, both to me and my brother Quin- 

tus, in our canvafs. 
A large houfe often becomes a difgrace to the owner. 
Do you alledge this as a crime to another ? 

RULE XXIII. 

I will now explain to you in few words for what crimes 

Oppianus was condemned. 
I fhall condemn you for the fame crime. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 6; 

Utor tu ipfe dux. 

Fungcr munus interpres. 

Fungor efficium bonus fenator. 

Vehementer probo avunculus t:uus fungor offichim. 

Quis ego utor teftis, quafi res dubius aut obfeurus fum ? 

Miror tu nolo utor is arm a qui lex do tu» 

Accipio tuus excufatio qui utor. 

Is fum proprius quifque qui quifque fruor et utor, 

Perparvus bene utor caliditas. 

Qui ratio utor is bonus quam is qui ratio non u: 

Deus non volo ego fcio ifte, fed. tantum modo utor b 

Cogito et in nofter ci vitas et in ceterus, qui potior res, 

talis cafus evenio. 
Si cxploratus fum tu, tu poffum potior regnum ille, non 

fum cunclandus. 
Vinco odium, que potior pax. 
Paulus potior omnis gaza Macedo. 
Aratus, proficifcor Argos Sicion, clandeftinus introitus 

potior urbs. 

RULE XXII. 

Cura fum ego negotium tuus. 

Utinam is res fum voluptas is. 

Habeo ego ipfe fui documentum. 

Peto igitur is magiftratus in qui poflum fum magnus 

utilitas ego. 
Sum magnus ufus, et ego et Quintus frater, in petitio 

nofter. 
Amplus domus faspe fio dedecus dominus. 
Ne is do crimen alter ? 



\ 



RULE XXIII. 

Nunc jam fummatim expono qui crimen Oppiabus 

damno. 
Ego condemno tti crimen idem. 
G 2 



66 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

I excufe myfelf in that particular to you, in which I ac- 
cufe you. 

I will take care in future* that you may not have it in 
your power to accufe me of neglect in writing. 

I will accufe him of certain crimes peculiarly his own. 

I entreat you to advife Terentia with refpect to the wu% 

RULE XXIV. 

He valued money greatly. 

What do you fuppofe I value that at ? 

You valued the houfe at more than yourfelf and youE 

* whole fortune. 

The mind ought now to grow callous, and efteem every 

thing as of little value. 
How highly dees he rate his own authority ! 
Thefe things cannot be valued by money. ; 

RULE XXV. 

Oppianicus prepared poifon for him. 

That boy declared the whole affair to his miftrefs. 

The victory of Servilius added thefe lands to the Ro* 

man people. 
He orders the decemviri to lay a very heavy tax on all. 

the public lands. 
I feem to myfelf to be able to fay this one thing truly. 
Our anceftors left thefe lands to us. 
I wifh.the Gods would give you that difpofition. 
I impart a fhare of my trouble to no one, of my glory» 

to all good men. 
No one objected that thing to Marcus Cato, when he 

might have had many enemies. 
An army of abandoned citizens had prepared a moft 

cruel and moil grievous deftruction for their country- 
I alfume nothing to myfelf. 
I preferred the life of my fellow-citizens to all thefe. 

things. 
I have not preferred Plancus to you. 
You referved yourfelf for other times. 
Great refpect is fhewn to your genius and humanity, 
I ought to return thanks to you* 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 67 

Excufo ego tu in is ipfe, in qui accufo tu. 

Non committo pofthac, ut poflum accufo ego de negli- 

gentia epiftolse. 
Accufo is fuus certus proprius crimen. 
Oro tu ut moneb Terentia de teftamentum, 

RULE XXIV. 

iEftimo pecunia magnus partus. 

Quantus puto ego aeftimo ille ? 

iEftimo domus plus quam tu quam fortuna tuus. 

Animus jam debeo calleo, atque $eftimo omnia minor, 

Quam magnus is xflimo fuus authoritas ! 
Hie non queo seftimo pecunia. 

RULE XXV. 

Oppianicus, paro venenum is. 

Puer ille indico res totus domina fuus. 

Victoria Servilius adjungo hie ager populus Romanus. 

Jubeo decemviri impono vecllgal pergrandis ager 

omnis public us. 
Videor ego pofTum dico hie unus vero. 
Majores nofter relinquo ager hie ego. 
Utinam Deus do mens ifte tu. 
Impertio pars onus nemo, gloria omnis bonus. 

Nemo objicio is Marcus Cato, cum habeo inimicus mul- 

tus. 
Exercitus civis perditus corriparo exitium crudelis et iuc- 

tuofus patria. 
Ajlumo nihil ego ipfe. 
Antepono vita civis meus hie omnis.- 

Non antepono Plancus tu. 

Refervo tu tempus alius. 

Honor magnus tribuo inge-nium et humanitas tuus. 

Debeo reddo gratia tu. 



68 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Nature herfelf has produced many allurements for us. 

I will explain to you briefly the reafon of my journey 
and return. 

He opened the gates of Dyrrachium to Brutus, and de- 
livered up the army. 

He will explain every thing to you. 

The fight of the city has reflored you to your former 
politenefs. 

They trailed themfelves to the conqueror. 

Virtue has given you more than fortune has taken away. 

I demonitrated the thing to him, and explained your 
former life. 

He very carefully explained your commands to me. 

I do not ceafe to recommend you to him. 

Temperance bringeth peace to the mind. 

The pleafure of the mind brings joy to us. 

The grief of the people was the occafion of liberty to 
the city. 

The boy gives me many figns of modefly and ingenuity. 

The laws of Lycurgus train die youth to labour. 

Dionyfius entrufled the care of his body to fierce barba- 
rians. 

Nature connects man to man. 

Common underflanding makes things known to us. 

I will not prove to thefe judges that Verres had taken 
money contrary to law. 

He trailed himfelf to the power of the king. 

Who firft gave names to all things ? 

I will dare pledge my credit to you. 

I afTume nothing to myfelf... 

I perfuaded the father to pay the fon's debts. 

You feem to me in a maaner to impofe too fevere rules 
on that age. 

I defire to aifift that company in whatever I can. 

What fhall I fay of Democritus ? Whom can I com- 
pare with him ? 

I will compare fmall things with great. . . 

Compare this peace with that war. 

I ought to» compare. your guards with the want and 
poverty of that thief. 

Different duties are allotted to different ages, and fome 
are proper for young men, others for thofe who are 
older. . 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 69 

Matura ipfe gigno blandimentum multus ego. 

Expono tu breviter concilium ct profectU} ejt rcjvcrfib 

meus. &U (?lil./'fc^r<J ( fnjl. '9 £*t/~ 
Apcrio porta Dyrrachium Brutus, et trado exetcitus. 

Ille explano omnis tu. 

Afpectus urbs reddo tu urbanitas tuus prifthvas* 

Credo fui viclor. 

Virtus do tu plus quam fortuna atifero.-* 

Demonftro res is, et expono vita tuus prior. 

Diligentiflime expono mandatum vefter ego. 

Ego non dciino commendo ille tu.. 

Temperantia affero pax mens. 

Voluptas mens afFero letitia ego. . 

Dolor populus fum caufa ljbertas civitas. - 

Puer do ego fignum multus pudor et ingenium. 

I>ex Lycurgus erudio juventus labor, 

Dionyiius committo cuftodia corpus fuus ferus harbarus. 

Natura concilio homo homo. 

Communis intelligentia efficio res notus ego. 

Non probo judex hie Verres capio pecunia contra lex. 

Committo fui potePcas rex. 

Qui primus impono nomen omnis res h 

Audeo obligo fides meus tu. 

Arrogo nihil ego. 

Perfuadeo pater ut difiolvo aes alienus Glius. 

Videor ego prope impono nimis duriis lex hie xtas* ... 

Cupio commodo is focietas quicunque res poflum. 
Quid loquor de Democritus ? Qui poiium confero 

cum is ? 
Comparo parvus cum magnus. 
Confero hie pax cum ille bellum. Jfi^ 

Debeo confero prsefidium yefter cum ;nJp et eeeftas 

illelatro. . ^L, $M ^/^™ & 
Orncium nori^dem tribuor difpar artas, aliufque fum 

juvenis, alius Senior, 



7o AN INTRODUCTION TO 

You order me to give thanks to Varro. 1 will do it, • 
Add to many and fuch different virtues, the advantage ' 

of friendfhip. 
He did not perceive that he gave immortality to things 

perifhable. 
Ye know now what and how great power may be given 

to the decemvirs. 
He compares his old age to the old age of a flrong 

horfe. 
I compare a man with a man. 
I do not compare him with the greateft men. 
Compare the life of Sulla with the life of that man*- 
They have given immenfe funis to a few people. 
Your fervant Nicanor gives me fingular ailiflance. 
I, employ myfelf in hiitory. 
Caeiar, we all of us give you our be ft thanks. 
He gave excellent precepts to the young men. 
For thefe reafons he was prefented with the freedom of 

the city by Pompey. 
I wifh the immortal Gods would give you that difpov* 

fition. 
The fire imparts vital heat to all tilings. 
He imparted his grief- to no one. - 
I impart a ihare of my trouble to no one, of my glory 

to all good men. 
I fear many things which I have informed your friend 

Milo of. 
He owes me a great deal of money. 
He paid prefent money to the woman, which was n.of 

due. 
I will moil religioufly obferve, and carefully execute^ 

what I promifed you. 
Epicrates owed no money to any one. 
I owe you nothing on the partnerfhip account. 
Verres paid nothing at all to the cities for corn. 
I have no 'One to whom I am more obliged than to you. 
Domitius's fon ordered it to be told me, that his father 

was in the city. 
Tyro will relate the affair to you. 
He. fometimes called a boy, to whom I fuppofe he gave 

orders for fupper. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. ^i 

fubeo ego ago gratia Varro. Facio. 

Adj ungo tot tarn que varius virtus, fruclus amicitia. 

Non fentio fui do immortalitas res mortalis. 

Nunc cognofco qui poteftas et quantus do decemviri 

Comparo fuus fene&us equus fortis. 

Comparo homo cum homo. 

Non ego comparo hie cum fummus vir* 

Confero vita Sulla cum vita ille. 

Do immanis pecunia pauci. 

Nicanor tuus do ego opera egregius. 

Do eg© hiitoria. 

Caefar, omnis ago tu gratia magnus. 

Do praeclarus preceptum juventus. 

Ob ille caufa dono civitas a Pompeius» 

Utinam Dii immortalis dono mens ifte fill. 






Ignis impertio calor vitalis omnis. 

Impertio dolor fuus nemo. 

Impertio pars onus meus'nemo, gloria omnis bonus. 

Metuo multus qui cum Milo vefter communico. 

Is debeo ego multus ntimmus. 

Is folvo mulier pecunia praefens, non debitus. 

San&iffime obfervo, que diligenthlime facio, qui pr$- 

mitto tu. 
Epicrates debeo ullus nummus nemo. 
^ .Debeo tu nihil ex focietas. 

Verres folvi nihil omnino civitas pro frumentum. 
Ego habeo nemo qui debeo plus quam tu. 
Domitius filius jubeo nuncio ego, pater fum ad urb;. 

Tyro narro res tu. 

Non nunquam voco puer, qui credo impero caena. 



7 2 /AN INTRODUCTION TO 

The report of mankind conveyed this very great mi£ N 
fortune to the mother, before any of the family of 
Opianicus. 

He trufted himfelf to the king. 

RULE XXVI. 

He firft afks you your opinion. 

I informed you of Siilius's affair. 

If I fhall afk you any thing, will you not anfwer ? 

If we can conceal the thing from Gods and men, yet 
we ought- to do nothing unjuftly. 

I teach you this. ^^ 

He admoniihed me of thefe things, -according to your 
directions. 

I beg and afk that of you. 

He entreated this of the king. 

I beg this of you in fuch a manlier,. that J can beg no- 
thing more earneftly. 

He begged this of me, and earneftly contended for it. * 

Now, in. the firfc place, I will afk you this. 

This I beg and infift on from you in confequence of our 
very intimate friendfliip, and your affection -for. me. 

RULE XXVII. • 

The hand of the enemy killed Priam, deprived of fc 

numerous an offspring. 
Ye had been willing to rill all Italy with your fettlers. 
The Romans, -deprived the Carthaginians of all the 

iflands which they held in the Mediterranean. 
The foldiers returned into the camp, laden with fpoil. 
She has entangled me with a garment that makes me 

mad, when I knew it not. 
Nature has clothed and defended the eyes with the 

fineft membranes. 

4 

RULE XXVIII. 

In the firft place know, that I was not firft afked my 

opinion. 
Allthiugs.areto.be entru.fted to-fortune; we ftriiggle 

without any hope. 
J%e took it very ill, that that province was given to him- 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 73 

Tlumor homo nuncio hie tantus dolor mater, priufquam 
quifquam ex familia Opianicus. 

Committo fui rex. jA^ Sifefr -W ' 

RULE XXVI. 

Is primum rogo tu fententiam. 

Doceo tu caufa Sillius. 

Si rogo tu aliquis, nonne refpondeo ? 

Si poiTum cclo res Deus et homo, tamen nihil faciei*- 

dus fum injufte. 
Doceo tu hie, 
Moneo ego is ex tuus mundatum. 

Peto et rogo hie a tu. 

Peto hie a rex. 

Ita rogo hie a tu, ut non poffum rogo major fludium. 

Peto hie a ego, que fummecontendo. 
Nunc, primum, rogo a tu iiie. 

JPeto atque contend o hie a tu, pro nofter fummus con- 
juuetio, que tuus benevolei^tiain ego. 

RULE XXVII. 

Maims hoftis interimo Priamus, orhatus tantus pro- 
genies. **+ 

Volo impleo Italia totus . colonus vefler. 

Romanus fpolio Paenus omnis infula qui teneo in marc 
Mediterraneus. ^ \ 

Miles reverto* in cafcra, oneratus praeda. 

Hie irretio ego veftis furialis, inftius. 

t Natura vcftio et fepio oculus tenuis membranum. 

RULE XXVIII. 
Piiraum fcio ego non rcgo fententia metis. 

Omnis committo fortuna ; conor fine fpes ullus» 

Psro graviter ille provincia do ille. 

H 



74 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

The victory was given to a learned orator. 

I think that pardon and impunity fhould be given t» 

the others, if they quitted their error. 
I have been provoked by you to write. 
It feems to me that I fee this city fooj* finking under» 

one general conflagration. ? im±U r n 

Aratus's city was pofle fled, fifty years by tyrants, 
I cenfured the fenate with very great authority, as I 

ought. 
I loved you from the day I knew you, and judged I 

was. beloved by you. 
Ehiiofop.hers will have every £hing to be as their own, 

and poiTeffed by them. 
Deiotarus the fon was called king by the fenate. 
The affair is to be confldered and judged of by us. 
The Gods have given no greater or better gift to man. 
Since we have now walked enough, let us change pur 

place. 
We are arrived at the ifland, nothing is pleafantsr than 

this. 
If you choofe it, let us fit down in the fhade. 

RULE XXIX. 

It is expedient for thofe who would enjoy inward peacf* 
to believe Gods's omnipotency. It is mahifeft to me» 
that he rules the world ? and it>is clear to the eyes of 
his fervants that his providence favours good men. 

I defire to make an excurfion into Greece ; it is of great - 
confequence to Cicero. 

This is of very great confequence to the ftate. 

It is of great confequence to your private affairs,, that 
you mould come as foon as poflible. 

It is of great confequence to my affairs, that you fhould 
be at Rome. 

It is of great confequence to him, that the affair fhould 
come to an interregnum. 

It is the intereft of all men to act right. 

Catiline, you ought long fmce to be dragged to death 
at the command of the conful. 

You ought to be well furnifhed with precepts of philo- 
lophy. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 7 e 

Palma do do&us orator. ^ *- ^fci 

Tuto venia et impunitas do cseterus, fi depono error 

fuus. _Jfc. "fcn.* ;-. * 

liacelfor abs tu ad fcribo. 
Videor ego video hie urbs fubito cencido unus ince»« 

dium. 
Aratus civkas teneo quinquaginta annus a tyrannus-. 
Objurgd fenatus cum fummus authoritas, ut videor ego* 

Diligo. tu qui dfes cognofco, que judico ego a tu diligo. 

Philofophus volo omnis ficut proprius fuus fum et a fut 

poffldeo. 
Deiotarus nlius appello rex a fenatus. 
Res fum cenfendus et seftimandus ego. 
Nee ulium majus~"aut melius a Diis datum muntfa 

homo. 
Quoniam jam fatis ambulo, muto locus, 

Venio in infula ;• nihil fum amcenus hie 

Si rld^tj coafklo m urabr^, # 

RULE XXIX. 

Expedit ille qui volo fruor pax internus, credo omni- 
potentia Deus. Conftat ego ille guberno mundus ; 
et liquet oculus fervus is providentia ipfe faveo bonus* 

Cupio excurro in Grsscia ; magnus intereft Cicero. 

Hie vehementer intereft res-publica. 

Multum intereft res familiaris tuus, tu quam primum 

venior. 
Permagni nofter fum, tu fam Roma. 

Permagni is intereft, res venio ad interregnum. 

Intereft omnis recte facio. 

Catilina, oportet tu jam pridem duco ad mors juflus 

conful. - 
Oportet tu abundo praeceptum philofophia* 



ts an introduction t® 

It is both proper and neceiTary that this fhould be dorteu 

They ought to be ftabbed with a fword. 

It well becomes us that our country fhould be dearer t#- 
us than ourfelves. 

Judges, if you are tired of fuch citizens, fhew it. 

I am quite tired of my life, every thing is fo full of the 
utmoft diftrefs. 

CrafTus, I am afhamed of you* 

Neither myfelf nor others mail repent of my induftry. 

I am afhamed to be fo foon driven from my opinion. 

Indeed I am not afhamed of you, whufe memory I ad- 
mire, but of Cryfippus. 

Indeed I am grieved for the very walls and buildings. 

Indeed you would now be in friendfhip with me again, . 
if you knew how much I am afhamed of your infamy,, 
of which you yourfelf. are not afhamed. 

RULE XXX. 

Cities could neither be built nor inhabited without the 

aiTembly of men. 
How can we have an idea of God, without his being 

eternal ? 
Let not the wicked prefume to appeafe die Gods by 

gifts. 

No one can avoid that which is to come. 

You can fay nothing true. 

I have now determined to think, nothing upon public 
affairs. 

He hefitated not to erecl an ♦edifice upon another man's 
ground. 

He defired to avoid all bufmefs. 

No wife man thinks it miferable to die. 

I defire to know what you think of thefe things. 

The father propofed to difmherit the fon. 

What ! I fay, can you not be filent ? 

Indeed I do not require that, and yet I defire to hear it. 

I cannot fuiHciently determine what may be their inten- 
tion. 

Many things feem poffible which are not. 

Indeed it is often of no advantage to know what will 
happen. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 77 

Oportet et opus fum hie fio. 
Oportet hie trucido ferrum. 
Decet patria cams fum ego quam egomet ipfc. 

Judex, fi txdet tu talis civis, oftendo. 

Prorfus tsedet vita, omnis fum plenifllmus omnU 

miferia. 
Craffus, pudet ego tu. 

Neque paenitet nos neque alius induitria noftra. 
Pudet ego tarn cito dejicio de fententia meus. 
Pudet ego-non tu quidem, qui memoria admirQr, fed 

Cryfippus. » 
Ego quidem miferet paries ipfe atque tectum. 
Nee tu jam redeo ingratia ego, cum fi fcio quam ego 

pudet nequitia tuus, qui tu ipfe non pudet. 

RULE XXX. 

Urbs non pcrffum neoatdificor nee frequentor fine castus 

homo. 
Qui ego poffum intelligo Deus, nifi fempiternus ? 

Impius ne audeo placo Deus munus. 

Nemo po/Tum fugio is qui fum. 

Poilum dico nihil vere. 

Jam ftatuo cogito nihil de res-publica. - 

Non dubito extruo sedificium in alienus, . 

Cupio efFugio omnis negotium. 

Nemo fapiens duco mifer morior. 

Volo fcio quis cogito de is. 

Pater cogito exhaeredo filius. 

Quis ! dico, vos non poilum taceo ? . 

Quidem non poftulo is, tamen aveo audio. 

Nee poifum fatis conftituo quis fum is confilium. 

Multus videor po/Tum fum qui nullus fum. 
Qjaidem faepe ne utilis fum fcio quis futurus fum» 



H % 



7 8 AN INTRODUCTION TO. 

RULE XXXI. 

No one ought to wonder that human counfels are oveiv 
ruled by divine neceffity. 

He perceives innumerable ftars adhering to the iky. 

If we would acquire a happy life, we muft cultivate vir- 
tue. 

The man was always affectionate to me. 

Nothing is fo defirous of things like itfelf,- as nature. . 

Ke was always defirous of .glory. 

I am tired of the levity of the Greeks. 

Ke was born of worthy parents, and in an -.honourable 
place. 

Publius Sextius was defcended from a father, a wife, vir- 
tuous, and fevere man. 

Orpheus and Rhefus were defcended from a mufe their, 
mother. 

I wifh Indeed the defcendant of Venus had courage 
enough. 

You have a fon as I hear and hope born to glory. 

RULES XXXII, XXXIII, XXXIV, XXXV, 
XXXVI. 

All muft die. . 

They muft be watchful who claim the administration of 

their country. 
Every one muft ufe his own judgment. 
You ought rather to be afhamed, if you continue in . 

your opinion. 
You muft always watch ; there are many fnares laid for 

the good. 
As phyfic is the art of healing, fo prudence is the art of 

living. 
There is moderation even in revenging and punifhing. 
Let me be at liberty to come into this place, I avoid not. 

the danger of fpeaking. 
That is the right way of teaching. 
How excellent, how divine, is the power of fpeech 
Let us now follow another kind of reafoning. 
I fhould have written to you fooner, if I could have 

found a fubject to write on. 
The hope of robbing and plundering had blinded their 

siinds, whom the allotment of lands has not fatisfiecL 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 79 

RULE XXXI. 

Nemo debco miror humanus confilium fum fupcratus 

divinus neceffitas. 
Video fidus innumerabilis inhaerens caelum. 
Si volo adipifcor vita beata, opera fum dandus virtuSc . 

Homo femper fum peramans ego. 

Nihil fum tarn appetens fimilis fui, quam natura. 

Semper fum appetens gloria. 

Perttefus fum levitas Graecus. 

Natus fum bonus parens, atque honcflus lccus. 

Fublius Se.xtius fam natus pater, homo et fapiens, et 

fancms, et feverus. 
Orpheus et Rhefus fum natus mufa mater. 

Utinam quidem prognatus Venus habeo fatis animus» : . 

Sum tu films ut et audio et fpero natus ad gloria. 

RULES XXXII, XXXIII, XXXIV, XXXV, 
XXXVI. 

Morior fum omnis. 

Vigilo fum is qui depofco fui gubernaculum patria* . 

Utor fum quifque fuus judicium. 

Magis pucfeo fum, fi remaneo in tnus fententia. .. 

Vigilo fum femper ; fum multus infid.iar bonus. 

Ut.medicina fum ars valetudo, fie prudentia fum vivc* 

Eft modus uleifcor et punio. 

Sum poteftas venio in hie locus, non recufo -pericului?! 

dico. 
Ifle fum rectus via doceo. 
Quam praeclarus, quam divinus, vis eloquor ! 
Jam fequor alius genus argurnentor. 
Antea mitto liters ad' tu, fi invenio genus fcribo. 

Spes rapio atque praedor occseco animus is, qui aifig- 
jiatio ager non fatis facio. 



So AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Unlefs I fhall now fatisfy Cluentius, it will not be in my 
power to fatisfy him hereafter. 

I went into Sicily for the purpofe of making an inquiry. 

He rejoiced that he had got an excufe for dying. . 

There is implanted by nature in our minds an infatiablc 
defire of perceiving the truth. 

1 defire to know what you think of going into Epirus. 

All that time was fpent in reading, there was no leifure 
for writing. 

They fpend all their time in inquiring and ftudying. 

No commendation can induce you to acl: well. 

Do you deny that virtue is fufficient for a happy life ? 

Praife ought to excite us to acl welL 

Epicurus denies that length of time adds any thing to a, 
happy life. 

We are ready to hear. 

To think right, and to da right, is fuftkient for a hap- 
py life. 

RULE XXXVII. 

They came into a certain place to falute fome one. 

This man came to Caefar to entreat that he would par* 
don him. 

Maecenas went to diversion, and Virgil went to bed. 

Part of the army was fent to lay wafte the Roman ter- 
ritories, and to attempt the city itfelf. . 

RULE XXXVIII. 

It is difficult to fay what may be the reafon. 

That indeed was moil dreadful, not only to hear, but 
fee. 

Thrafybulus, thinking that fomething was.to be attempt- 
ed for his country, gathered together the exiles. 

It is incredible to be told, that the numbers of the enemy 
and their fhouts did not difmay him. 

RULE XXXIX. 

I only afk you whether you think my enemy's hatred 1 

of me was moderate. 
A certain man afked me when I left Rome, and whether 

there was any news there. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN*. gu 

Nifi nunc fatisfacio Cluentius, poteftas non fum mihi 

fatisfacio poltea. 
Proficifcor in Sicilia caufa inquiro. 
Gaudeo fui nanicifcor caufa morior. 
Infum natura mens nofter infatiabilis qui dam cupiditas 

verum video. 
Volo fcio quis tu cogito de traitfori in Epirus. 
Is omnis tempus confumo in lego, non fum otiunt 

fcribo. 
Confumo omnis tempus in qucero et difco. 
Laus non poffum allicio tu ad bene facio. 
Nego virtus fatis pofium ad beate vivo ? 
Laus debeo allicio ego ad recle facio. 
Epicurus nego diuturnitas tempus efFero aliquis ai 

bene vivo. 
Sum paratus ad audio. 
Bene fentio, recteque facio, fum fatis ad bene que 

beate vivo. 

RULE XXXVII. - 

Venio ad aliquis locus faluto aliquis. 
Hie venio ad Csefar oro ut ignofco fui. 

Maecenas eo ludo, Virgil iufque eo dormio. 
Pars exercitus mitto depopulor ager Romanus, et tento 
urbs ipfe. 

*RULE XXXVIII. 

Sum difficilis dico quis fum caufa. 

Hie vero taUer, non modo audio, fed etiam afpicio. 

Thrafybulus, ratus aliquis audeo pro patria, contraho 

exul. 
Sum incredibilis dico, nee numerus hoftis nee clamor 

terreo ille. 

RULE XXXIX. 

Tantum requiro a tu utrum puto odium inimicus fum 

mediocris in ego. 
Qnidam quaefo ex ego quis dies exeo Rcma 7 et nu*n 

cmis fum in is novus, 



tr AN INTRODUCTION TO 

I fear left I fhould again be of a different opinion f; 
you. 

folly ! or whether may I call it folly cr remarkable 
impudence ? 

1 fear left he may attribute more to virtue than nature 
may allow. 

I hope I have a very good fhip. I wrote this as fooa 

as I got on board. 
But do you prefs the opportunity ? 
What are you willing to give me, 'ti^it thefe perfons 

may not be taken from- me ? 

RULE XL." 

Obferve, this is what I before mentioned. 

Behold the crime, behold the caufe for which a fugitive 
accufes his king, a Have his matter**'' 

See thefe interpreters of leagues. 

See the reafon for which this excellent law was intro- 
duced, that we might have thofe perfons for judges 
whom no one would choofe to entertain asguefts* 

In what part of the world are we ? - ^ 

<j ye immortal Gods ! of what nation are we ? What 
government have we ? In what city do we live ? 

TU^TCCll men n ^ve no one to take the lead, our pa- 
trons of liberty are far off. 

^Egypta came to me the day before the ides of April. 

Philotimus came the day before that day. 

I have lefs ftrength than either of you. 

I am convinced you have not as yet ftrength fufticient 
for me to difpute with you. 

There is protection fufficient in virtue to procure a hap- 
py life. 

RULE XLL 

I fent to Athens to meet him. 

Though they were out of the way, they went down to 

meet him. 
I have fent Tyro to meet Dolabella ; he will return on 

the ides. 
You in the mean time was at Rome, to afllft jou* 

friends truly. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 3 3 

Vereor ne rurfus difTcntio a tu. 

O ftultitia! ne dico ftultitia, an impudcntia fingularis ? ^ff^- 

Vereor ne tribuo plus, virtus quam natura patior. /«/a*"- 

, Sperojaos habeo navis valde bcnus. Scribo hie fimulat- 
que confcendo. 
Quin tu urgeo occafio ifte ? 
<^uis volo do nos, ne ifte aufero a tu ? 



RULE XL. 

En, hie ille fum qui antea dico. 

En crimen, en caufa qui fugitivus accufo rex, fervur 

dominus. 
En interpres foedus. 
£n caufa cur lex tam egregius fero 5 ut is judex habeo 

qui hofpes habeo nemo volo. 

Ubi terra fum ? 

O Dii immortalisl ubinam gens fum ? Qui res-publica 

habeo? In qui urbs vivo ? 
Bonus non habeo dux, vindex. libertas longe gens ab- 

fum. 
JEgypta venio ad ego.pridie idus Aprilis. 
Bhilotimus venio pridie is dies. 
Habeo minus vis quam utervis verier. 
Statuo tu nondum habeo fatis vis ut ego luclor cumj^i. 

£ft fatis prasfidium in virtus ad,vivendus beatc. 



RULE XLL 

Mitto Athense obviam ille. 

Cum fum devius, obviam is defcendo. 

Ego mitto Tyro obviam Dolabella 5 revertor idus. 

Ta interea fum Roma, fcilicet fum praefto amicus, 



*4 A N INTRODUCTION TO 

Ipicratcs came to meet me a long way with all h'U 
friends. 

The whclc city came out to meet him as he came to 

town. 
Little gowns w:re provided for the lienors at the gates. 
■Why was the camp moved farther from the camp of 

the enemy, and nearer to the citv ? 

RULES XXII, XLIII, XLIV. 

The wiferi philofophers have properly looked for the 

origin of the chief good in nature. 
From every virtue particular kinds of duties arife.- 
Llis fellow-citizens drove Hannibal out of the city. 
1 have thought; much and long upon that very fubjecl:, 
Hannibal referved nothing for his private ufe. 
Where, is there any .virtue, if there is nothing put in 

our own power ? Ik 

* 1 hey are in the fame error. 
TJiofe things which depend upon falfe principles, cannot 

be true. 
Upon which fubjett, as I have faid enough in my Cato 

Major. 
We cannot do every -thing by Qurfelves. 
Some fay that the feat of die foul is in the heart, others 

in the brain. 
What then is that to us ? 
"To feparate the mind from the body,' is nothing elfe than 

: to learn to die. 
We are ready to refute without pbflinacy, and to be re» 

fttfed without angfer. 
Cur fentiments always agreed together, as in peace, fo 

alfb in war. 
Hannibal was at the gates. 
But this indeed is nothing to the purpofe. 
It is eafy to be freed from fuperilition, if you take away 

all the power of the Gods. 
You make a lubjecl, in my opinion not the leaft doubt- 
ful, doubtful by arguing. 
I am of that opinion which I know you always were of. 
He was InftrucWd in Greek learning. 
I faid fo in that my firft fpeech on the calen.'s of 

January. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 8$ 

Xpicrates procedo obviam ego longe cum cives omnis. 

Totus civitas procedo obviam hie veniens ad urbs. 

Togula praefto fum liclor ad porta. 
Cur caftra moveo longius caftra hoftis, et proprius 
urbs ? 

RULES XLII, XLIII, XLIV. 

^Gravis philofophus jus peto initium fummus bonurn 

a natura. 
Ex fingulus virtus certus genus officium nafcor. 
Suus civis ejicio Hannibal a civitas. 
Cogito multum et diu de ifte res. 
Hannibal refervo nullus ad ufus fuus. 
Ubi virtus, fi nihil fum fitus in ego ipfe ? 

"Verfor in fimilis error. 

-Qui a falfus initium proficifcor, ne poffum fum veru& 

De qui, quoniam dico fatis multus hi Cato Major. 

Non poffum ago omnis per ego. 

Alius dico fedes animus fum in cor, alius in cerebrum. 

Quis igitur fum is ad ego ? 

Secerno animus a corpus, nequidquam alius fum quam 

difco emorior. 
Paro refello fine pertinatia, et refello fine iracundia. 

Senfus nofter femper congruo, ut in pax, fie etiam in 

bellum. 
Hannibal fum ad porta. 
Sed hie jam nihil ad res. 
Sum facilis libero fuperftitio, cum tollo omnis vis Deux* 

Facio res, meus fententia minim dubius, dubius argu- 

mentor. 
Ego fum in ifta fententia qui fcio tu femper fum. 
Erudio Grsecus do&rma. 

Dico primus meus -ille oratio calends; Januarius* 
I 



&5 -AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Do I feem to you to be in fuch want of friends ? 
Indeed, in my opinion, there is the greateft truth in the 

fenfes. 
He threw the reft of the body into the fea. 
He threw my brother. into prifon. 
He prepared a mailer and a tyrant fcr, pur children. 
He hid himfelf in a dark part of the ft air- cafe. 
She married into a very diftinguiflied family. 
Should I alone be drawn into any ?di$cplty, I would 

bear it patiently. 
Let us quit the theatre; let us*gO into the forum. 
The report of the comitia reached as far as Cuma. 
Cepheus is buried up to, the loins. 

RULEXLV. 

I wifn we could .wipe away the tears from all.thefe, by 

our votes and decrees. 
I am abfent both from my houfe and the forum. 
The Portian law has removed the rod from .the body of 

every Roman citizen. 
They fay the foul exifts after it has quitted the bodjjv 
The law orders us to approach the Gods with a pure 

mind. 
Ke ought to detzft that fufpicion 
He flew to the city with incredible fwiftnefs. 
Men could fcarce keep their hands from you. 
A man of the greateft power fled from Brundufium t© 

the city. 

Thofe trades are difapproved of, which incur the diflike 

of mankind. 
c**& - 

RULES XLVI, XLVII. 

Oh houfe ! alas, how art thou governed ! 
Oh ! my friend Furnius, how have you been unacquaint- 
ed with your owncaufe, who can fo eailly underftand 

other perfons ! 
Oh excellent guardian of the fheep ! a wolf. 
Oh wretched and unhappy that day in which Sulla was 

appointed conful by all the centuries ! 
O night! thou who haft aim oft brought eternal dark- 

nefs over this city * 



/HE MAKING OF LATIN. tf 

Tideor ne tu fum tantus inopia amicus ? 

Mens quidem judicium, ium magnus vcritas in fenfas; 

Abjicio reliquus corpus in mare. 

Conjicio 'fratcr in vincula. 

Cbmpono magifter et tyrannus in nofter liberi. 

Abdo fui in tenebne fcala. 

Nubo in familia elariilimus. * 

Si folus adducg in difcrimen aliquis, fero animus 

aiquior. 
Exeo e theatrnm, venio in forum. 
Rumor de comitia clare tenus Cuma\ 
Cepheus condo tenus lumbus. 

RULE XLV. 

Utinam poffum abftergo hie omnis iletus, fententia nof- 
ter et coniiiiu 

Abium et domus'et forum/ 

Portius lex amoveo virga a corpus omnis civis Roma» 
mis, 

Aio animus maneo cum excedo e corpus-. 

Lex jubeo accedo ad Deus cafte. 

Debeo abhorreo ab ifta fufpicio. 

Advolo ad urbs incredibiKs celeritas. 

Homo vix poffum abftineo mamas a tu. 

Homo potentiflimus advolo aj^ iirbs a Brundufium. • 

Is quseftus improbo, qui incurro in odium homo. 



RULES XLVI, XLVII. 

O domus ! heu, quam gubernor ! 

CU meus Fumius, quam tu non nofco tuus caufa, qui 
tarn, facile difco alienus ! 

O prseclarus cuftos ovis ! lupus. 

,0 mifer et infelix dies ille qui Sulla renuntio conful om- 
nis centuria ! 
O ncx ! qui fere affero asternus tenebrse hie urbs I 



88 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

O the cunning fellows ! with how few words do they 

expect to finifh the bufmefs ! 
O your pleafmg letters ! two of which were delivered td 

me at one time. 
We have fent ambaffadors, alas ! miferable me ! 

ye. immortal Gods ! guardians and prefervers of this 
city and empire, what wickednefs have ye feen ! 

Woe is me ! I cannot recoiled: this without tears. 

RULE XLVIII. 

He purchafed the rank of a fenator with money down* 
He fold it to fome one for a large fum of money. 

1 would have moil willingly redeemed the ftate from- 

definition, at my own private lofs. 
I faved the life of all the citizens by the punifbment of 

five abandoned men. 
He openly bought himfelf off with money. 
He bought the houfe almoft an half dearer than he va>* 

lued it. 
He fold it for a very great price. 
He fold it for no very great price. 
As any po/Teffes what is of moft value, fo is he to be 

reckoned richeft. 
The land is now of much more value than it then was. 
Ccrn was in no place of fo much value as he reckoned 

it. 
Of what confequence do you think this was to a man's 

character 1 
I could willingly die for Pompey ; of all men I efteem 

no one more. 
He fold that for as much as he valued it. 
If you efteem me as much as you certainly do. 
I am not ignorant of what confequence you efteem his 

name. 
I fell my goods for no more than other perfons, pro* 

bably for lefs. 

RULE XLIX. 

Our morals are corrupted by our admiration of wealth. 
Every one is moft attracted by his own ftudies. 
I fhould think envy, procured by virtue, not envy, but 
glory. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. S* 

O acutns homo ! quam pauci vcrbum puto negotiurfl 

confejflus ! 
O fuavis epiilola tuus ! duo datus' ego unus tempus. 

Mitto legatus, heu ! ego mifer ! 

Pro Dii immortalis ! cuftos et confcrvator hie urbs, qui 

feci us video ! 
Hei ego ! non pofTum commemoro hie fine lachryma. 

RULE XLVIII. 

Mersor ordo fenatorius pretium. 
Vehdo aliqitis grandis pecunia. 

Ego libentiflime redimo calamitas a res-publica, n 
pnvatus incommodum. 

Ego redimo vita omnis civis poena quinque homo per- 

ditus. 
Palam redimo fui pecunia. 
Is emo domus prope dimidium cams quam redimo. 

Vendo is quam plurimus. 
Vendo is non ita magnusl 
Ut quifque pofiideo qui fum plurimus, ita habeo ditif-- 

iimus. 
Ager nunc Aim multo plus quam tunc fum. 
Frumentum fum in liullus locus tantus quanti ille redimo». 

Quantus piito*liic fam ad fama homo ? 
* ' .* 

Ego libenter poflum emorior pro Pompeius ; omnis ho- 
mo stfftimo nemo pins. 
Vendo is tanti quantus reilimo. 
Si facio ego tantus qlianti eerie facio. 
Non ignoro quantus puto nomen is* 

Vendo meus ncn plus quam creter, fortaffe etiam 
minor. 

RULE XL1X. 

Mos cormmpor que depravor admiratio divitire. 

Quifque maxime duco fuum ftudium. 

Puto iavidia, partus gloria, non invidia, fed gloria. 

I 2 



90 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

I will fay this with your permiffion. * 

Some are moved by grief, others by paffion. 

3 agree with thofe who think all thefe things are regu 

lated by nature. ■ 
He who fears that which cannot be avoided, can on no 

account live with a quiet mind. 
It cannot be told how much I am delighted with your 

yefterday's difcourfe. 
Thou haft killed him with fcourges. 
Thou haft ftruck him with an axe. 
Some amufement is allowed to youth by die confent of" 

all. . 
All Italy has been inflamed with the love of liberty. 
Milo is not moved with thefe tears. 
He offended no one in word, deed, or look. 
I am not fo much pleafed with news, as with your let- 
ters. 
The Roman people expreffed their pleafure by a very 

great ihouting. 
I wondered that you wrote to me with your own hand. 
I perceive that you are rejoiced at my moderation and. 

forbearance. 
We are by nature inclined to love mankind. 
All men are captivated by pleafure. 

v RULE L. 

How much I wifh you had continued at Rome ! which 

you would have certainly done, had we fuppofed thefe 

things would happen. 
I remain in fufpenfe at Theftalonica. 
1 had no doubt but that I fhould fee you at Tarentum 

or Brundufium. 
Dionyfms taught children at Corinth. 
I feem to be at Rome, when I am reading your letters.. 
I fuppofe when you were at Athens you were often in ; 

the fchools of the philofophers. 
He on the contrary was fo much at his eafe, that he was 

all the while at Naples. 
There is a ftrong report at Puteoli, that Ptolemy is re- 

ftored to his kingdom. 
It is reported that, he went to Curroe. 






THE MAKING OF LATIN. 9 r 

Dico hie pax tuus. 

Alius moveo dolor, alius cupiditas. 

Aflentior is qui puto hie omnis rego natura. 

Qut metuo is qui non poffum vitor,. is nullus modus 

poffum vivo animus quietus. 
Non poffum dico quam delecto hefternus difputatio. • 

Neco ille verber.. 

Percutio ille fecuris. 

Aliquis ludus do adolefcentia confenfus omnis. 

Totus Italia exardeo defiderium libertas. /ff /Lu >' /ajfy 1 * 1 

Milo non moveo hie lachryma. -&*eJ av** <-" ltt 

OfFendo nemo res, verbum, vultus. 

Non tarn deleclpr res novus, quam tuus liters. 

Populus Romanus fignifico voluntas clamor maximus». 

Admiror quod fcribo ad ego manus tuus. 
Video tu laetor nofler moderatio et continentia* 

Sum propenfus natura ad homo diligendus. 
Omnis capio voluptas. 

RULE L. 

Quam volo raaneo Roma ! qui ago profecxo fi puto hie 
fum. 

Maneo fufpenfus Theffalonica. 

Non fum ego dubius quin \ideo tu Tarentum aut Brim- 

dufium. 
Dionyfius doceo puer Corinthus. 
Videor fum Roma, cum lego literae tuus. 
Credo cum fum Athense fsepe fum in fchola philofophus. 

Hie contra ita quiefco, ut fum is tempus omnis Nea- 

pclis. 
Magnus fum rumor Puteoli, Ptolemeus fum in regnum* . 

Fero fui confero Cumas, 



AN INTRODUCTION TO 

RULE LI. 

If I dared, I would go to Athens. 

T will mention what I myfelf faw when I came to Capua. 

Do you vifit that place with pleafure, where Demofthe- 

nes and JEfchines often difputed with each other ? 
I have come to Athens., fays Democritus, and no one 

there knew me. 
I defire to go to fee Alexandria, and the reil of Egypt. 

RULE LIL * 

I was forry that Servius left Athens. 

Gsefar retired from Alexandria, happy, as he thought' 

himfelf. 
Why was my acquaintance Drufus killed in his own. 

houfe ? 
That man was, as you know, illuftrious abroad, and t(£. 

be admired at home. . 

RULE LIIL 

Clodius was caught at Caefar*s houfe. 

He is either at home, or not far from home. 

Had you not rather be fafe in your own houfe, tha;? 

unfafe at another man's ? 
The Egyptians embalm their dead, and keep them at 

home. 
Diodo.tus, the floic, lived many years blind at ray 

houfe. 
Every thing was venal at your houfe, by the moft fcan- 

dalous traffic. 
I perceive how much eafier it would have been to have 

flaid at home, than to return. 
When I was at ieifure at home. 

It accidentally happened that we were in the country. 
I think that Atticus is in the country. 
Firfl; make my compliments to Attica, who I "fuppcfe is 

in the country. 
He fufFered him to be in the country. 
Balbus came directly to my houfe. 
He flies into the country out of town, as from confines 

ment. 
Tlhey flew from the city into the country,.: 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. ,£ 

RULE LI. 

Si audeo, peto Athenae. 

Commemoro is qui egomet video- cum venio Capua. 

An libenter invifo is locus, ubi Demoithenes et iEichines 

foleo decerto inter fui ? 
Venio Athenae, Democritus inquit, neque quifque ibi 

agnofco ego. 
Cupio vifo Alexandria, que reliquus iEgyptus. 

RULE LII. 

Servius difcedio Athenae molefte fero. 

Caefar recipio fui Alexandria felix, ut videor fui. 

Cur fodalis meus Drufus interficio fuus domus ? 

Ule virfum, ficut fcio, cum forts clarus, turn domus ad- 
mirandus* 

RULE LIIL. 

Clbdius deprehendor domus Caefar. 

Aut fum domus, aut non longe a domus. 

Nonne malo fum line periculum domus tuus, quana 

cum periculum alienus ? 
JEgyptas condio mortuus, et fervo is domus. 

Diodotus, ftoicus, vivo multus annus caecus domus 

nofter. 
Omnis fum venalis domus tuus, mercatio turpiffimus. 

Intelligo quantus fum facilis maneo domus, quam. 

redeo. 
Cum fum otiofus domus. 
Forte evehio ut fum rus. 
Arbitror Atticus fum rus. 
Primum do falus Attica, qui arbitror fum rus, 

Patior hie fum rus. 

Balbus recte venio domus meus. 

Evolo rus ex urbs, tanquam ex vinculum*. 

Evolo ex urbs rus, 



54 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

You have driven me from my houfe. 
They were unwilling to go from home. . 
They did not remove themfelves from home. . 

RULE LI.V. .. 
I hear that there is neither gold nor filve-r in Britain* - 

I am very glad that you did not go into Britain. 
I wait to know what is doing in hither Gaul. ' 
I came by fca from Epidaurus to the Pirxus, with an 
intent to go from.Athens to Bceotia. , 

RULE LV. 

He ordered that -he fhould be a thc-xifand paces frcro? 

the city. 
He. pitched his camp fix miles from the enemy. 
Arnihal was three days' journey from Tar r entum. - . 
1 Be walls of Babylon were two hundred- feet high, and 

fifty broad, 

RULE LVI. 

The origin cf all this wickednefs mail be explained in- 
ks proper time. -* 
The fenate was at the fame time in the temple df Con-. 

cord. 
There are three things whkh at this time make againft 

Rofcius. 
I beg you would be at Rome in the month of January. 
From the^ Appian forum, at ten o'clock in the morning, 

I. fent another letter a little before, from the three 

taverns, 
Pomponia ordered me to be informed, that ; you would 

be at Rome in the month of Auguft. 
The fun fhone out on the third day. 
He was at...war for twenty years with wicked citizens, 
I fupped with Pompey that day by accident. 
He had a houfe for many years at Rome. 
Conilder, I beg of 'yen, thefe things day and night. 
No one has been an enemy to the ftate thefe twenty 

years, who has not at the fame time declared war 

againft me. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. $5 

Fxpello ego domus mens. 
Nolo cxeo domus. 
>Non commovco fui clomps. 

RULE LIV. 

Audio nihil fum nequc aurum neque argentum in 

Britannia. 
Vebemcntei gaudeo tu non profcifcor in Britannia. 

n in expe&atio ut fcio quis gcro in Gallia criterion 
Advchor uavis Piraeus af> Epidaurus, i; coniilium ut 

co ab Athens ad BceoTia. 

KXjLt LV. 
Edico ut abfem urbs millia partus. 

Pono caftra'iex millc pafius ab hoftis. 
tWmibal abfum via triduura a Tarentum. 
Murus Babylon fum ducenti pes .altus. et quinquar- 
latus. 

RULE LVI. 
JRons tctus'hic fcelus aperlo fuus tempus. 

Senatus fam idem tempus in aqd.es Concordm- 

Tres fum qui hic^ tempus obfto JRqfcius. 

"Rogo tu ut Roma fum menfis Januarius. 
Ab Appkis forum, bora quartus, do alius pauio ante 
a tres taberna. 

"'Pomponia jubeo nuntio ego, tu fiim Roma menik 

fextilis. 
Sol iiluceo tertius dies. 
Gero bellum viginti annus clyis improbus, 
v Cceno apud "Porhpeius is dies cafus. 
Hie habeo domicilium Roma multus annus. 
"Quaefo meditor'is dies et nox. 
Nemo fum hoftis res-publica hie annus viginti qui, no-:;. 

idem tempus indico beiium ego quogue* 



4)6 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Pofidonius, a fcholar of his, writes, that Pansetius lived 
thirty years after he had publifhed thofe books. 

RULE LVII. 

I fpeak of thofe alfo who are not in the number of the 

enemy. 
There you will collect what belongs to this fubjecl. 
The ground which has refted many years ufually pro- 
duces very plentiful, crops. 
I do not indeed now difpute what may be mod conve- 
nient. 
.Now let us fee what is wont to be advanced on the 

other fide of the que ft ion. 
I will omit thefe things ; I will .reply to thofe which 

affect me more. 
They who defire to fell, will not find buyers. 
Who then was prefent ? He fays, the brother of my 

wife. 
What relation is he to you ? My brother. 
He underwent many things befides, which neceffity 

obliged him to bear. 
I now return to thofe things which you directed me. 
You will perceive, by the fame books, both what I did 

and what I faid. 
I expected the arrival of Menander, whom I fent to 

you, with the utmoft impatience. 
I have nothing further which I can write to you. 
Where then are thofe whom you call miferable, or what 

place do they inhabit ? 
Why am I compelled to find fault with the fenate, 

whom I have, always commended ? 
Rabinius was amongft thofe whom he had been moll 

mad if he had oppofed, moft bafe if he had deferted. 
When I fay all, I except thofe whom no one thinks 

worthy of being citizens. 
All the reafons which you mention are both moft juft, 

and moft worthy of your authority and dignity. 
I have received your letter, in which you advife me to 

come to Brundufium very foon. 
The ccnfuls came to. that army which I had in Apulia- 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 97 

« 

Scriptus a Poffidonius, difcipulus is, Fanxtius vivo tri- 
ginta annus poftquam edo ille liber. 

RULE LVII. 

Ego dico etiam de is qui non fum in numerus hoftis. 

Illic afTumo qui pertineo ad hie locus. 

Ager qui quiefco annus multus, foleo effero fruges uber. 

Ego ne jam quidem difputo qui fum expeditus. 

Nunc video is qui foleo difputor contra. 

Omitto hie ; refpondeo ad ille qui magis moveo ego. 

Qui cupio vendo, non reperio emptor. 

Quis ergo adfum ? Inquit, frater uxor meus. 

Quis fum is tu ? Frater. 

Perievero multus prxterea, qui neceffitas cogo fero. 

Nunc redeo ad is qui mando ego. 
Perfpicio, ex is liber, et qui gero et qui dico. 

Expeclo adventus Menander, qui mitto ad tu, cura fum- 

mus. 
Non habeo prxtera qui fcribo ad tu. 
Ubi igitur fum ille qui dico mifer, aut qui locus incolo ? 

• Cur cogor reprehendo fenatus, qui femper laudo ? 

.Rabinius fum cum is, qui amentiflimus fum fi oppugno 9 

turpiffimus fi relinquo. 
Cum dico omnis, excipio is qui nemo puto dignus civitas. 

Omnis caufa qui commemoro fum juftus, et dignus tuus 

authoritas et dignitas. 
.Accipio literse tuus, qui hortor ego ut veaio Brundu- 

fium celerius. 
^Conful venio ad is excercitus qui habeo in Apulia. 



K 



9 8 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

RULE LVIII. 

I did not blame your caufe, but your plan. 

We fliould take care that the punifhment may not be 

greater than the fault. 
We place confidence in thofe who we think know 

more than ourfelves. 
We are cornpofed of foul and body. 
He ordered the man to be feized and carried to Scanrus. 
All perfons have thought her rather always the friend 

of every one, than the enemy -of any one. 
That clamour nothing diflurbs, but comforts me, as it 

fhews there are feme ignorant citizens? out not manv. 

RULE LIX. 

Both I and Balbus -lifted up our hands. 

Fortitude and wifdom fcarcely feem feparable. 

Habit and rcafon have made you more patient and 

gentle. 
Pomponius and Sextius and Fife. have as yet kept me 

at Theffalonica. 
The great-grandfather and the grandfather were 

prretors. 

JIULE LX. 

Though he is without, fault, yet he is not free- from 

fufpicion. 
All pleafant things, although they may be judged of 

by t.he outward fenfes, yet ought to be referred to 

the mind. 
Unlefs it is difagreeable, repeat what you have begun. 

RULE LXI. 

Who was ever more knowing than this man ? 

What is bolder -than rafhnefs ? 

Thofe things which I have faid arc clearer than the fun 
. itfelf. 

What is there more deferable than wifdom ? 

Kothing is more commendable, nothing more worthy of 
a great and illuftrious man, than mildnefs and cle- 
mency. 



T-HE MAKING OF LATIN. 99 

RULE LVIII. 

1 iiftproba caufa noiler, fed con/ilium. 
Caveo fum ne poena fum magnus quam culpa. 

Habeo fides is qui plus iutelligo quam ego arbitrorV 

dmiio ex animus et corpus. 

Jubeo homo comprehendo que deduco ad Scaurus. 

Omnis judico ille potius Temper amicus omnis, quam 

inirnicus quifquam. 
Tile clamor nihil commoveo, ego {cd confolor, cum indi- 

co quidam civis imperitus fum fed noil multus. 

RULE LIX. 

Et ego et Balbus tollo manus. 

Fortitudo et fapicntia vix videcr poffum fejungo. 

Confbetudo et ratio facio tu patiens lenifque. 

Pompom us el Sex tins et Pifo achuc retineo ego The (fa- 

lonica. 
Proavus et avus fum praetor.' 

RULE LX. 

Quanquam abfum a culpar, tamen non careo fufpicio. 

Omnis jucundus, quanquam judico fenfus corpus, tamett 
debeo refero ad animus. 

Nifi fum moleflars, repeto qui ccepi. 

RULE LXI. 

Quis unquam fum fciens hie homo ? 
Quis fum fortis temeritas ? 
Is qui dico fum clarus fol ipfe. 

Quis fum optabilis fapientia ? 

Nihil laudabilis, nihil magnus et proclarus vir dignu% 
placabilitas atque dementia. 



,oo AN INTRODUCTION TO 

A fhamefut flight from death is worfe than any death. 

What is more difgraceful than inconftancy, levity, and 
ficklenefs ? 

Nothing is more pleafing than true glory. 

Nothing is more friendly to me than felitude. 

My country is much dearer to me than my life. 

No place ought to be mere pleafing to you than your 
country. 

What is better in rrian than a fagacious and good mind ? 

What can we call more wretched than folly ? 

What is more pleafing.- -than literary eafe ? 

Nothing is more inconftant than the common people, 
nothing more uncertain than the refolutions of man- 
kind. 

Believe me, nothing is more handfome, nothing more 
beautiful, nothing more lovely, than virtue. 

There is nothing more pleafing to man than the light of 
truth. 

What is better or more excellent than goodnefs and be- 
neficence ? 

I never touched a colder ftream than this. 

RULE LXII. 

Wild beafts are in dread, if the fear of death is impreft 

upon them. 
lie allowed me this in tKe hearing of many. 
He lived whilft my family was upon the throne. 
Take care that you are at Rome in the beginning of 

January. 
You fent me word of Caniiuus's fhip wreck, as if it was 

a matter of doubt. 
There will be no mention made of this crime, if you are 

his accufer. % 

He left R.ome whilft we were living. 
He came to Rome when Marius was conful, and Catu- 

lus. 
I recollecl the defpair of thofe who were old men when 

I was a youth. 
As foon as I had written my letter, Hermia came. 
When nature is our guide, we can by no means miftake* 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 101 

Turpis fuga mors fum malus <:mnis mors. 
Quis- fum turpis inconftantia, levitas, mobilitas ? 

Nihil fum. duleis verus gloria. , 
Nihil fum amicus ego folitudo. 
Patria fum multo carr.s ego vita meus. 
Nullus locus debet fum duleis tu patria. 

Quis fum bonus in homo fagax et bonus mens ? 
Quis poflum dico mifer ftultitia ? 
Quis fum duleis otium literatus ? 

Nihil fum incertus vulgus, nihil obfeurus voluntas ho- 
mo. 

Credo ego, nihil formofus, nihil pulcher, nihil amabilis, 

virtus. 
Nihil fum homo duleis lax Veritas. 

Quis fum bonus, aut quis preftans bonitas et beneficen- 

tia ? 
Nee attingo ullus flumen frigidus hie. 

RULE LXIL 
Fera horrefco, terror mors injedus fur. 

Tribuo hie ego multus audio. 

Sum meus gentilis regno. 

Cura ut fum Rcma Januarius ineo. 

Tu mitto ego de naufragium Caninius, quail res dubt- 
us. —- 

Nullus mentio fio hie crimen, tu accufo. 

Proficifcor Roma ego vivo. 

Venio Roma Marius conful, et Catulus. 

Recordor defperatio is qui fum fenis ego adolefcens. 

Scribo epiftola, Kermia venit. 

Natura dux, poifum nullus modus erro. 



K2 



102 AN INTRODUCTION TO 



PROMISCUOUS EXERCISES. 

IF You and Tullia, our delight, are well, I and my 
deareil Cicero are well. ; 

"When my brother came to me, in the flrft place our dif- 
courfe, and that a long one, was about you, from 
whence I came to thofe particulars which you ajid I 
had talked over with each other concerning your lif- 
ter, y 

Call off your attention and thoughts from thefe fubjecls, . 
fend recollect rather thofe things which are worthy of 
'%our character ; that fhe lived as long as was neceffa- 
ry for her ; fhe lived to .fee you, her. father, praetor, 
conful, augur; to perform every duty that was in- 
cumbent on her ; and then, when the government was 
no more, fhe quitted this life. What is there that 
you or fhe can complain of fortune on this account ? 

It is evident, that unlefs equity, and fidelity, and juftice, 
proceed from nature, it is impoffible to find a good, 
man. 

Order, cenftancy and moderation are employed in things 
of that nature, which have a reference to fome action. 

Pompey and Hortenfius nominated me augur, at the re* 
queh 1 of the whole college. 

Upon this, when both <5f them expre ft their being ready 
to hear me ; in the firft place fays I, I entreat you, 
that you would not expect* that, like a philofopher, I 
ihouki explain any fyftem to you. 

To employ your reafon and -your words prudently, to 
perform what you undertake with deliberation, and in 
every circumftance to difcern what is true, and to de- 
fend it, is graceful ; on the other hand, to be deceiv- 
ed, to blunder, to be cheated, is difgraceful. 

To think this, is a mark of prudence ; to do it, of cou- 
rage ; both to think and to do it, of perfect and com- 
plete virtue. 

To deprive any one of what is his due, and for a man 
to increafe his own property at the expenfe of his 
neighbour, is more contradictory to human nature 
than death, than poverty, than pain, or any thmg elfq 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. ic$ 



PROMISCUOUS EXERCISES. 

SI Tu et Tullia lux nofler valeo, ego et fuavis 
Cicero valeo. <x^, 
Cum ad ego frater venio, in primus ego fermo, ifque 
multus, de tu, fum ex qui ego venio ad is, qui fum 
egp et tu inter ego de foror locutus. 



Tu ab hinc res animus ac cogitatio tuus aveco, atque is 
potius reminifcor qui dignus tuus pprfona fum quam 
diu is opus, fum vivo una cum res-publica, fum tu 
pater, fuus pnetor, conful, augur video ; omnis bo- 
nus prope perfunctus cum res-publica' occido vita ex- 
cedo Quis fum qui tu aut ille cum fortuna hie ho* 
men queror poffum. 

Perfpicuus fum nifi asquitas et fides et jufHtia proficifcor, , 
a natura vir bonus noil pofTum reperio. 

Ordo, conftantia et moderatio veror in is genus ad qui 

adhibendus fum actio quidam. 
Ego augur a totus collegium expetitus Pompeius et 

Hortenfius nomino. 
Hie cum uterque fui ad audio iignifico paratus primum 

inquam depreccr ne ego tanquam philofophus puto 

fchola tu aliquis explico. 

Ratio utor atque oratio prudenter, et ago qui ago coir* 
fi derate, omnis que in res quis fum verum video et 
tueor deceo, contraque fallor, erro, decipior, dedecec* 



Hie fentio prudentia fum, facio, fortitudo, et fentio ve- 
ro et facio perfeclus cumiilatus que virtus. 

Detraho aliquis alter, et homo incommodum fuu.s 
augeo commodum, magis fum contra natura, quam 
mors, quam paupertas, quam dolor, quam ceter qui 
poffum aut corpus accido, aut res exterjmsj nam* 



J04 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

which can happen to our perfons, or external goods ; 
for, in the firft place, it takes away all connexion and 
fociety between mankind ; for if we were originally fo 
conftituted, as to plunder and injure each other, for 
our own emolument, that bond of unity between man 
and man, which is the principal work of nature, muft 
nece/farily be broke in funder ; juft .as. if any one of 
our limbs fhould entertain this notion,', to think that it 
could, paffibly continue in health, if it appropriated to 
itfelf the nutriment of any other part, although it is 
evident that from hence the whole body mull be weak-, 
ened and deftroyed ; thus if any one fhould feize upon< 
what is the fupport of another, and convert whatever 
he could to his own private emolument, the fociety 
and community of mankind muft, of courfe, be over- 
turned ; for as every one is more defirous to procure 
for himfelf, than any other, thofe things which are 
nece/Tary for the fupport of life, this is what is allow- 
ed by nature itfelf ; but nature alfo will not permit 
this ? that we fhould increafe our power, our influence 
or fortune by plundering others ; nor is this only 
eftablifhed by nature, that is by the general law of 
mankind, but alfo by the po£tive..inititu + '^n of all 
people, by which, in every ft axe* their ^ rnients 
are fupported ; for this is what their law. .iave in 
view, this they intend, that the bond of fociety may 
be preferved between the citizens, and whofoever 
breaks it, they punilh with death, banifhment, impri- 
fonment, or fine. , 

Sometimes todepart a little from one's own right, is 
net only generous, but advantageous. 

It is enough not to raife up. thofe men who are fallen 
through imprudence ; but to prefs thofe who lie down, 
or to pufh on thofe who are falling, is certainly inhu-. 
man. 

To defpife. what, any one may think of him,, is a mark 
not only of an arrogant man, but alfo of one totally 
abandoned. 

To know but little is not fhameful ; but foolifhly to per-, 
fevere a long time in what you know but little of, is ; 
fmce the one may be attributed to the general infir- 
mity of human nature, the other to the peculiar fault 
of the individual. /~~^— 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 105 

principium, tollo convictus humanus et focietas, fi 
enim lie fum affeclus, ut propter fuus quifque emolu- 
mentum fpolio aut violo alter, diirumpo neceffe, fum 
is qui maxime fum fecundum natura humanus genus 
focietas, ut ii unufquifque membrum fenfus hie habeo 
ut pofTum puto fui valeo, fi proximus membrum valc- 
tudo ad fui traduco debilitor et interio lotus corpus 
neceffe, fum fie fi unufquifque ego rapio ad fui, com- 
modum alius detraho qui quifque pcfium emolumcn- 
tum fui gratia focietas homo et communitas evertor 
neceffe, fum nam fui ut quifque malo qui ad urns vita 
pertineo quam alter, quam alter acquiro concefTus 
fum, non repugnans natura ille quidem natura, non 
patior ut alius fpolium nolier facultas copia opis au- 
geo, neque vero hie folum natura is fum jus gens, fed 
et lex populus qui in fmgulus civitas, res-publica con- 
tineor idem modus conflituor, ut non licet fuus com- 
modum caufa noceo alter, hie enim fpeclo lex hie vo- 
lo incolumis fum civis conjunctio qui dirimo-is mors 
exfulium vinculum damnum coerce 0. 



Non modo liberalis fum, pa-ale ncmrunquam de fuus jus* 

decedo, fed etiam fructuofus. 
Satis fum homo imprudentia lapfus non erigo ; urgeo 

vero jacens, aut praecipitans impello, certe fum inhu- 

manus. 

Negligo quis de fui quifque fentio, non folum arrogans 
fum, fed etiam omnino diifolutus. 

Non parum cognofco ; fed in parum cognofco fluke et 
diu perfevero, turpis fum ; propterea quod alter com- 
munis homo innrmitas, alter fingularis unufquifque 
vitium, attribuo.- 



fo6 AN INTRODUCTION TO' 

- 

Part of you particularly avoided the approach to,' and 
the fight of, this place, part of you did not earned! y 
attend it. 

I am very glad that you are got fd£c to Epirus, and that, 
as you write, you have had a pleafant voyage. 

It is in my opinion highly decorous, that the houfes of 
illuflrious men mould be open to illurlrious guefts. 

It is evident that the benefits and advantages which are 
received from thofe^hings which are inanimate, thefe 
v/e could by no means enjoy without the labour -and 
- a ffi ft a n c e of m an kind. 

See how I am convinced that you are another felf. 

1 think thus, that an accomplished general ihculd pof- 
fefs thefe four qualifications ; a knowledge of war, 
courage, authority, good fortune. 

I not only confeis that you know thefe things better 
than I, but alio eaiily permit it. 

Many perfons entertain depraved notions of the Deity, 
but ail believe that there is a divine power and na- 
ture.. 

He added this alfo, which is certainly true, that brave 
and wife men do not ufually fo much aim at the re- 
ward of good actions, -as the actions themfelves. 

I add this alfo, that nature without education has often- 
er attained to glory and virtue, than education with- 
out nature. 

I was doubly pleafed with your letters, both becaufe I 
my felf laughed, and becaufe I perceived that you can 
now laugh» 

Do you fay that you think I had rather have my works 
read and approved of by any one, than by you ? 

He {qqs that there is no evil but where there is a fault, 
but that -there is no fault -when that happens, which is 
not in the power of man, 

But I find the man never made an auction, never fold 
any thing but the produce, of his eitate ; not only is ii 
no one's debt, but is, and always has been, full in cam 
of his own. 

I return to what I wrote in the nrfc part of my letter, 
that men will foon form a judgment of your whole 
conduct, not fo much from your intention, as the 
event. 



T'llE MAKING OF LATIK. iof 

ftdBtttS hie locus, confpecTas que, vcfter partim magno 
perc fugio, partim non vehcment€r feqnor. 

Tu in Eplrus falvus venio, et ut fcribo, ex fententia na- 

vigo> vehementer gaudeb. 
Sum enim ut ego videor valde decprus, patco d<nvns 

homo illuftris, illuftris hofpes. 
Ferfpicuus fum -qui f rutins qui utilitas ex res is qui fum 

manknatus, percipior is-ego mdlus modus fine homo 

manus atque opera capio pomim. 

Video quam ego pcrfuadco tu ego fum alter* 
Ego fie exifiimo, in fummus, imperator.q.uatuor hie res 
. infum -oportet, -ilientia res. militaris, .virtus, ajUjthqji- 

tas, felicitas. 
F.go cnim fcio tu ifce melius quam ego non fate or fo- 

lum, fed etiam facile patior. 
Multus de Dii pravus fentio, o ran is tamen fum. vis et 

natura jdivinus, arbkrpr. 

Ad do hie, qui cer.te. verus fum, fcrtis et fapiens vir non 
tarn praemium fequor foleo recte factum, quam ipie 
rectus faclum. v 

lile etiam adjungo, feplus ad laus atque virtus natura 
fine doclrina, quam line natura valeo doclrina. 

Dupliciter deleclo tuns literce, et quod ipfc rideo, et 
quod tui intelligo jkm poflum rideo* 

Aio nc tu exifiimo ab -ullus malo mens lego pr-cboque, 

quam xt tu ? 
Video nullus malum fum iiifi culpa, culpa autem nullus 

fum cum is, qui ab homo noil poilum prsefto evenio. 

At homo invenio auclio facio, nullus vendo prater fruc- 
tus fuus nihil unquam ; non modo in pes alienus nul- 
lus, fed in fuus nummus gnultus fum. 

.Redeo ad ilie qui initium fcribo, totus factum tuus ju- 
. Jicium, non Ham ex conlilium tuus, quam ex even- 
tu^ homo facio. 



io8 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

TlnVl rather fear, left, through ignorance of the true 
path of glory, you mould think it glorious for your- 
f elf alone to have more power than all others, and 
had rather be feared than loved by your fellow-citi- 
zens. 

Had not you rather believe what can be proved, that 
the fouls ef famous men, fuch-as the Tyndaridae were, 
are divine and eternal, than that thofe who have been 
once burnt can ride upon an horfe, or fight in an ar- 
my ? 

I could fwear by Jupiter and the houfehold Gods, both 
that I burn with a defire of finding out the truth, and 
that I think what I fay ; for how can I not defire to 
find out the truth, when I rejoice if I find any thing 
like the truth ? 

As we believe by nature that there, are Gods, but know 
by reafoning what they are ; fo we conclude that our 
fouls remain (after death) by the general confent of 
all nations ; but in what Rate, or what they are, we 
learn from reflection. 

Nor do I agree with thofe who have lately begun to af- 
fert, that our fouls perifh together with our bodies, 
, .and that death annihilates every tiling ; I am rather 
influenced by the authority of Socrates, who always 
faid, that the foul of man was divine, and that when 
it left the body, it returned back. to heaven. 

If you fhould know that an alp lay concerned any where, 
and one who did not know it fhould intend to fit up- 
on it, whole idea^mtewetuld be an advantage to you, 
*♦ you would do wickedly if you did not caution him 
not to fit. there ; an'd yet^is , evident that you could 
have acted £o with impunity, for who could have con- 
victed you of it ? 

I will not repeat all the mifery I have fuffered through 
the wickednefs, net only of my enemies, but of thofe 
who envied me, left I mould not only increafe my 
own forrow, but alio excite your grief. 

Happy is the man, whofe lot it is to be able to acquire 
wifdom and true knowledge, even in his old age. 

I beg and entreat of.you, judges, to give that mercy tc 
a very brave man, for which he afks not hixnfelf. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 109 

Iile magis vereor ne ignoro vrras iter gloria glorio- 
fus puto plus tu unus poffum quam omnis, et mctuo 
a civis tuiis quam diligo malo. 

Nonne malo ille credo qui probo poflum, animus pr#. 

clarus homo qualis" ifte Tyntaridae fum diurnus fum 
• ct aeternus quam is qui iemel cremo equito et in 

acies pugno poflum. 

Juro per Jupiter Dii que penates, ego et ardeo ftudium 
verum reperiendus, et is lentio qui dico ; qui enim 
poffum non cupio verum, invenio cum gaudeo fi fimi- 
lis verum quis invenio ? 

Ut Deus fum natura opinor, qualifque fum ratione cog* 
. nofco ; lie permaneo animus arbitror confenms natio 

omnis ; quis in {^d^s maneo, qualifque fum, ratio 

difcendus fum, 

Neque enim affentior is qui hie nuper differo coepi, cum 
corpus fimul animus intereo, atque cmnis mors deleo ; 
plus apud ego Socrates aucloritas valeo, qui dico 
femper, animus homo fum divinus, ifque cum corpus 
excedo, reditus in ccelum pateo. 

Si fcio afpis occulte lateo, et volo imprudens fuper is affi- 
deo, qui mors tu emolumentum, futurus fum 
improbe facio nifi moneo ne affideo ; fed impune Ta-" 
men is tu conilo facio, quis enim coarguo poifum ? 



Non facio ut enumero mlferia omnis in qui incido per 
fcelus, non tarn inimicus meus, quam invidus, ne et 
meus mceror exagito, et tu in idem iuctus voco» 

Beatus ille, qui, eti.im in fenechis, contingo ut fapientia 

verus que opinio affequor poifum. 
Oro obteitorque tu, judex, uc is mifericordia tribuo for- 

tis vir, qui ipfe non impioro. 
L 



( 

tto AN INTRODUCTION T© 

As philofophy alone teaches us all other things, fo alie 
that which is moil: difficult, to know ourfelves. 

What ignominy, what difgrace, will not any one under- 
go to avoid pain, who has concluded that that h the 
greateft evil 1 

you ordered that phyfician, whom you brought wish 
you, to open the veins of the man. 

Your friend Caninius advifed me, in your own words, 
to write to you, if there was any thing which 1 
thought you ought to know. 

A wonderful fury .has feized, not only the wicked, but 
even thofe who are efteemed good, that the*y defire to 
fight, whilft I am calling out, that nothing is more 
dreadful than a civil war. 

Who of us engages in any laborious bodily exercife, but 
to obtain fome advantage from it ? -..or-, who can right- 
ly cenfure even him who defires to enjoy that plea- 
fure which will be attended with no bad confequence ? 

I have read your letter, by which I learn, that our 
friend Csefar confiders ycu as a great lawyer. You 
have reafon to be glad, that ycu are got into a place 
where you may appear to underftand fomething. 

It feems wcnderful that a foothfayer does not laugh 
when he {*es a foothfayer ; this is more wonderrul, 
ilian you can keep from laughing one among ano- 
ther. 

Fortune is riot only blind herfelf, but fhe alfo aenerally 
makes thofe blind whom fhe favours ; ancPfcpuleed, we 
.. may often fee thofe who were before of obliging tem- 
pers, altered by place, power, and profperity. 

When we admit thefe things to be true, and rightly as 
I judge, how can we be allowed to ieparate law agid 
right from nature. 

I may be allowed to praife-w^felf before you, fon Mar- 
cus, to whom the inheritance of my glory, and the 
imitation of my. conduct, devolve s. 

It was eVident that Pompey took this very ill, which 
when I heard fro*n others, I principally knew from 
my brother. 

Do you wifh then that I fhould go through all the phi- 
lofophy of Epicurus, or .that I fhouli confine my in- 



THE MAKING' OF LATIN. tit 

?hilofophia unus ego cum caeter res omnis, mm qui fum 

difficilis doceo ut egomet ipfe nofco. 
Quis ignominia quis turpitudo non perfero ut effagio' 

dolor, h* isfummus malus fum decerno I 

Is medicus qui tu cunl adduco impero ut vena homo 

iucido. *' 
Caninius nofter ego tuus verbum admoneo ut fcribo ad 

tu ii quis fum qui puto tu fcio oportet. 

Mirus invado furor non folum improbus fed etiam is 
qui bonus habeo ut pugno cupio ego clamans nihil 
fum bellum civil is rilifer. 

Quis ndfter exercitatio ullus corpus fufcipio laboriofus 
nil! ut aliquis ex is commodum confequor, quis au- 
tem vel is jus reprehendo qui in is voluptas volo fum 
qui nihil moleftia confequor. 

Lego tuus literae ex qui intelligo tu Caefar nofter valde 
jus confultus videor. Sum quod gaudeo tu in ifte 
locus venio ubi aliquis fapio videor. 

Mirabilis videor quod non rideo harufpex cum harafpex 
video ; hie mirabili3 quod tu inter tu rifus teneo 
poffum. 

Non enim folum ipfe Fortuna ccecus firm fed ille etiam 
plerumque efncio ccecus qui complector itaque hie 
quoque video licet is qui antea commodus fum mos 
imperium poteftas profperus res imisuto. 

Qui cum verus fum recle, ut arbitror f&Scedo qui jam 
licet ego, a natura lex et jus fejungJBg 

Licet Marcus filius apud tu glorior, w qui et hereditas 
hie gloria et factum imitatio pertinql 

Sane molefte Pompeius fero confto, qui ego cum audio 
ex alius maxijme ex meus frater cognofco. 

Utrum igitur percurro omnis Epicurus difciplina placet^ 

t & 



ii2 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

quiry to pleafure alone, concerning which all the dif- 
pute is ? 

What character we choofe to fuftain, depends upon our 
own choice. Thus fome apply to philofophy, others to 
the civil law, others to eloquence, each perfon felecting 
fome particular virtue, in which he choofes to excel. 

All the polite arts have a certain common bond, and are 
connected together, as it were, by a certain affinity be- 
tween them. 

If I miitake in this, becaufe I believe that the foul of 
man. is immortal, I willingly miftake ; nor do I defire 
to have this miftake torn frorn me whilft I live. 

Therefore on account of this my doubt, this very letter 
is the ihorter, becaufe, while I am uncertain where 
you are, I am unwilling that our private correfpon- 
dence ihould fall into ltrange hands. 

In an active and military life, even a little philofophy is 
often very lerviceable, and produces advantages, if not 
fo great as could be received from a general know- 
ledge of philofophy, yet fuch as may femetimes, in 
fome degree, relieve us from paflion, ileknefs, or fear. 

If you have received the greateil injury from him, yet, 
as you have been his queitor, you cannot profecute 
him without fome cenfure' ; but if no injury has been 
done to you, you cannot proiecute him ^without a 
crime. 

Many are the fecret wounds of the Rate, many the per- 
nicious machinations of abandoned citizens. There 
is no foreign danger, no king, no people, no nation to 
be feared ; the malady is fecret, inteiiine, domeitic. 

The feeds of virtue wire implanted in our minds, and 
were thefe permitted to grow to maturity, nature her- 
felf would conduct us to a happy life ; but now as 
foon as we are brought into the light, and taken care 
of, we are immediately engaged in every depravity, 
and every perverfity of ^opinion, fo that we feem to 
fuck in error, almoit with our nurfe's milk. 

The fenate and all the people have been delighted with 
your agreement. 

Neither the parent, nor the nurfe, nor the mafler, nor 
the poet, nor the ftage, depraves our outward fenfes, 






THE MAKING OF LATIN. 113 

an de voluptas unus qucero de qui omnis certamcn 

fum ? 
Ipfe autem qui perfona gero volo a nofter voluntas, 

proficifcor atque fui alius ad philofophia, alius ad 

jus civilis, alius ad eloquentiam applico ipfe, que 

virtus in alius, alius malo cxeello. 
Omnis ars qui ad humanitas pe.tineo, habeo quidam 

communis vinculum,- at quaii cognitio quidam inter 

fui contineo. 
Quod fi in hoc erro quod animus homo immortalis fum 

credo libenter erro nee eg© hie error dum vivo extor- 

queo volo. 
Itaque propter hie dubitatio mens brevis hrc ipfe epiftola 

fum quod cum incertus fum ubi fum nolo ille nofter 

familiaris fermo in alienus mantis devenio* 

In vita occupatus atque militaris paucus ipfe in philofo- 
phia multum fsepe profum et fero fructus, fi non tan* 
tus quantus ex univerfus philofophia percipio porTum 
tamen is qui aliquis ex. pars Jnterdum aut cupiditas 
aut jegritudo aut metus liberoT* 

Si fummus injuria ab ille accipio tamen quoniam qusef- 
tor is fum non poflum is fine .ullus vituperatio accufo 
fi vero nullus tu.fio injuria fine fcelus is accufo non 
pofTum. 

Multus ftuii oceultus re?-publica vulnus mult us nefarius 
cires perniciofus concilium nul!us externus periculum 
fum non rex. non gens ullus non natio pertimefcendus 
fum include malum inteftinus ac domefticus fum. 

Sum enim ingenium nofter femen innatus virtus qui fi 
adolefco licet ipfe ego ad beatus vita natura perduco 
nunc autem flmul edo in lux, et fufpicid in omnis 
continuo pravitas verfor ut pcene cum lac nutrix er- 
ror iugo videor. 



Senatus et cunctus civitas deleclo vefter concordia» 

Senilis nofter, non parens, non nutrix, non magifter, 
non poeta, non fcena -depravo, non multitudo confen- 
L z 

i 



J 



ii 4 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

nor does the confpiracy of numbers feduce tliofe from 
their truft ; but every fnare is fpread for our fouls,, 
either by thofe whom 1 hav^jufl mentioned, or by 
what continues deeply interwoven in eyery^nfe, plea/7 
fure. ^^^^£^^,^^^ '^^ *G~- -T^&tj^ 

What'ought v£eto downen incited by the kindnefs of 
others to make an acknowledgement ? ihould we not 
imitate fruitful lands, which return much more than 
they have received ? for if we hefitate not to confer 
favours upon tbofe whom we hope will be ferviceable 
to us, how ought we to behave to thofe who have 
been already fo ? 

That God, who rules within us, forbids us to depart 
hence without his permifiion. 

The mind, exalting itfelf, always fo looks forward into, 
futurity, as if it was then finally about to live, w T hen 
it had departed from this life. 

Nor do I think there ever was any fuch monfter upon. 
earth) formed of fuch contrary paffions and natural 
inclinations, fo various, fo contradictory to each other. 

In the fir it place, it is natural to every kind of animal 
to defend itfelf, its life and body ; and to avoid 
thofe things whieh may feem hurtful, and to feek 
•after, and procure, all things which are neceflary 
to life, as pafture, ihelter, and the like. 

What difpofition in human nature is better than theirs 
who think themfelves born to pleafe, to protect and 

, preferve mankind ? 

They give good advice, who forbid us to do any thing 
of which we doubt whether it is juft or unjuft : for 
juftice makes itfelf evident ; a doubt implies fufpicion 
of an injury- 
Man» who is partaker of reafon, by which he difcerns 
confequencei, and fees the principles and caufes of 
things, and is not ignorant of their progrefs and dif- 
tant origin, who compares things fimilar, and joins 
and connects the future with the prefent ; can eaiily 
fee through the whole courfe of his life, and prepare 
things necelfary for going through it. 

There^is a letter extant of old Marcus Cato to his fon, 
in which he writes, that he heard he was difmiffed by 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 115 

fus abduco ille a verum; animus vero omnis tendo in- 
fidia^vel ab is qui modo numero vcl ab is qui penitus 
in Omnis fenfus implicatus infideo imitatrix bonum 
voluptas malum autcm mater omnis. 

Quis nam beneficium provocatus facio debeo, an non 
imitor ager fertilis, qui multo plus affero quam acci- 
pio ? etenim fi in is qui fpero ego profuturus non du- 
bito officium confero, qualis in is fum debeo qui jam 
profum ? 

Veto dominor ille in ego Deus injufius hinc ego fuus 

demigro. 
Animus erigo rfhi pofteritas femper ita profpicio quail 

cum excedo q vita turn denique victurus fum. 

Neque ego unquam fum talis monftrum in terra ullus 
1 puto tarn ex contrarius diverfufque inter fui pnenanjs 

natura ftudium cupiditafque conflatus. fai. for* Za LC > m ^ 
Principium genus animans omnis fum a natura tributus 

ut fui vita corpus que tueor declino que is qui noci- 

turus videor, omnis que qui fum ad vivo neceilarius 

inquiro et paro ut paflus latibulum et alius idem 

genus. 
Qui fum igitur bonus in homo genus natura quam is 

qui fui nafcor ad homo juvandus tutandus confervan- 

dus arbitror \ 
Bene praecipio qui veto quifquam ago qui dubito sequus 

fum an iniquus aequitas enim luceo, ipfe per fui dubi- 

tatio cogitatio figniiico injuria. 

Homo qui ratio fum pariiceps, v per qui confequens cer- 
no principium et caufa res video ifque progreiTus et 
anteceffio non ignoro fimilitudo comparo reique prae- 
fens adjungo atque annecto futurus facile totus vita 
curfus video actis que dego praeparo res neceilarius. 

Marcus quidem Cato fenex fum epiftola ad filius, in qui 
fcribo fui audio is miflus fio a confol cum in Macedo- 



V 



ti6 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

his conful, when he was a foldicr in Macedonia dur- 
ing the Periian war ; he therefore admonifhes him to 
take care that he did not enter into battle, for he af- 
firmed that it was not lawful for one, who was not a 
foldier to engage with the enemy. 

Refpect your ancellors, and fo govern % the ftate that 
your fellow-citizens may rejoice you were born ; with- 
out which no one can be happy, no one can be illuf- 
trious. . 

I received your very fhort letter, in which I could not 
learn what I wifhed to know, but could perceive what 
I had no doubt of ; for I could not find how you bear 
our common misfortunes, but could eafily difcern how 
much you love me. Had I known the one as well as 
I knew the other, I would have adapted my letter to 
it ; but however, though in my former letter I wrote 
what I thought neceflary, yet I judge it proper to let 
you know at prefent, in few words, that you are not 
to fuppofe.yourfelf in any particular danger ; it is true 
we are all in great danger, *but it is general ; you 
therefore ought not to expect any particular good 
luck, or refufe what we mull all fubmit to. Let us 
therefore entertain the fame affection for each other 
We always did, which I can hope for from you, and 
engage for from myfelf. 

Young men hope that they mall live long, which old 
men cannot hope for:, but their hopes are foolifh ; 
for what can be more filly than to regard thofe things 

. as certain whi£li4f-e uncertain I 

Will there be any place in the world more fit ta receive 
fuch virtue, than that which gave it birth? 

This provident, fagacious, various, fubtle, thoughtful, 
rational, wile animal, which we call man, is created 
by the fupreme God with noble privileges ; for he 
alone, of fo» many different kinds and forts of animals, 
is partafe^qfkreafon and knowledge, when all others 
are with-it -$j[iem ; for what is there, I will not fay in 
man, but in *all heaven and earth, more" divine than 
reafon ? 

Can you deny that that very day, being prevented by 
my guards 2nd my attention, you were unable to effect 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. xi 7 

ftia beMum Pcrficum miles fum moneo igitur, ut 
cavco ne praelium inco nege-'enim jus fum qui miles 
non fum pugno cum hoftis. 



Majores tuns refpicio, atque ita guberno res-publica ut 
nafcor tu civis tuus gaudeo fine qui nee bcatus nee 
cLirus fum- quis-quam poflum. 

Accipio perbrevis tuus liters?, qui is qui feio cupio 
^cognofco non peffum cognefco autem qui ego dubius 
non fum nam quam fortiter fero communis miltria, 
non intelligo quam ego amo facile perfpicio, fed hie 
feio ille, fi fcio adis meus liters accommodo, fed ta- 
men etfi antea fcribo qui exiftimo fcribo cportet 
tamen tui tempus breviter commonendus puto ne 
quis periculum tu proprius exjftimo fum in magnus 
omnis, fed tamen in communis fum quaii non debeo 
aut proprius poftulo, aut communis recufo qua prop- 
ter is animus Turn inter ego, qui femper fum qui de 
tu fpero de ego praefto poiium. 



Spero adolefcens diu fui viclurus qui fpero fenex non 
poifum inflpienter fpero quis enim ftultus quam in- 
certus pro certus habeo ? 

Sum dignus locus in terra ullus quLbic virtus excrpio^ 
quam qui procreo ? g^, /; jUv *s''" ^**^- &&&> ft a^ri . 

Animal hie providus fagax qui multiplex auclus memor 
plenus ratio et confilium, qui voco homo, prsclarus 
quidam conditio genero a fummus Deus folus, fum 
enim ex tot animans genus atque natura particeps 
ratio et cogitatio cum cseter fum omnis expers, quis 
fum autem non dico in homo fed in omnis ccelum 
atque terra ratio divinus ? 

Num incitior pofTum tu ille ipfe dies meus proefidium, 
meus diligentia, sircurn clufus commoveo tu contra 



m8 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

-any thing againft the ftate, at which time you declared^ 
that you would be content with the abfence of others, 
but with the maifacre of us who continued at Rome ? 

Every thing has beeivdone by my fault, who thought my- 
felf loved by thofe who envied me, did not attend to 
thofe who courted me. 

The Grecians paid divine honours to thofe men who 
killed tyrants. 

He who fears what cannot be avoided, can by no means 
live with a quiet mind. 

Men pervert thofe things which are the fjrft principles. 
of nature, when they feparate the ufeful from the 
honourable. 

Socrates, when he was afked, why he had fixed no pu- 

■ niihment on him who killed his parent, replied, that 
it was, he fuppofed, what no one would do. 

Before I proceed to thofe things which have been treat- 
of by you, I will fay wh,at I think of you yourfelf. 

It may happen that a man may think juftly, and can~ 
not elegantly exprefs what he thinks. 

He had by nature a peculiar penetration, which he im- 
proved alfo by practice. 

I defire you will fend me as foon as poffible what you 
have collected for my academy. 

To digrefs from your fubject, for the.purpofe of excit* 
ing the paflions, is. often ufeful. 

I fpeak not of what I, but what an orator, might be ca- 
pable of. 

I have certain ways and means, by which I can invifti- 
gate, and trace up, all their attempts. 

I perceive you collect every thing which you think can 
give me any hopes of a change of affairs. 

I commended the incredible diligence of Pompey. 

I thoroughly difcern both the integrity and greatnefs of 
your mind. 

The means of revenging an injury, are eafier than re- 
returning a favour. 

The graceful is difcenaed in every action and word ; in 
fhort, in every motion and pofition of the body. 

Virtue defires no other reward of her labours and dan- 
gers, except this of praife and -glory. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. m<> 

rcs-publica non poffum cum tu difceffus castep noftcr 
tamen, qui remaneo caedes contentus tu fum dico ? 

Omnis Aim meus culpa commiffus qui ab is ego amo 
puto qui invideo is non fequor qui peto. 

Gnecus homo deus honor tribuo is vir qui tyrahnu? 

neco. 
Qui is qui vito non poffum metuo is vivo animus quietus 

nullus modus poffum. 
Perverto homo is qui fum fundamentum natura cum 

utilif^s ab honeftus fcjungo. 

Socrates cum interrogo cur nullus fupplicium confti- 

tuo in is qui parens neco, refpondeo fui is nemo 

facio puto. 
Antequam aggredior ad is qui a tu difputo de tu ipfe 

dico quis fentio. 
Fio poffum ut recte quis fentio et is qui fentio polite 

eloquor non poffum. 
Habeo a natura genus quidam acumen qui etiam ars 

limo. 
Tu vblo qui academia nofter paro'quam primum mine. 

Digredior ab is qui. propono permovendus animus caufa 

i^epe utilis fum. 
Non quis ego fqd quis orator poffum difputo. 

Habeo certus via atqu^ ratio qui omnis ille conatus 

myeftigo et confequor poffum. 
Video tu colligo omnis qui puto aliquis,fpes ego poffum 

affero mutandus res. * f" y Ht&- 

Laudo incredibilis diligentia Pompeius. (£**//*** ^^^td^^^ 

Ego perfpicio et integritas et magnitude animus tuus, 

•Ulcifcendus injuria fac^»* ratio fum quam beneficiujn 

remunerandus. 
Decorus in omnis faclu^. et diclum in corpus denique 

motus et ftatus cerno. 
Nullus virtus alius merces labor. pcriculumcue deficj-.rp 

piaster hie laus et gloria. m 



no AN INTRODUCTION TO 

In every fubject, the general confent of all nations is t« 

be regarded as the law of nature. 
In Greece itfelf, philofophy had never been in fo great 

repute, had it not flourifhed by means of the difputes 

and different opinions of the mofl learned men. 
A love of pleafure, and an attachment to virtue, cannot 

eafily exift in the fame perfon. 
The meditation on future evils foftens their approach, 

when they appear coming long before. 
He thinks it banifhment to be where there is no place 

for virtue ; that death is the end, not the puniihment, 

of human nature. 
For what name can imply greater affection and indul- 
gence than that of a mother ? 
He acted contrary to the manners and cufioms of the 

date. 
Your remembrance of your father's friendfhip, and that 

affection which you have entertained for me from a 

boy, have given incredible joy. 
Antifthenes faid that the -gods of the people are many, 
- of nature, one. > 

A. Lig-urius, a friend of Cscfars, is dead, a worthy mail, 

and a friend of mine. 
This is mine and my brother's, native country. 
What can this man do when angry, if he might have tfr 

in his power ; who, when he could be angry with no 

one, was the enemy of every good man ? 
I heard this from P. Vedius, a great knave, but yet an 

intimate of Pompey's. 
I cannot blame that in you; which I approved of in my- 

felf, praetor and conful. 
Would Lepidus, a man adorned with every advantage 

of virtue and fortune, defire amity with this fellow ? 
I expect that folitude which you dread, as a certain re- 
fuge, for 1 think that retirement is the belt acquifition 

for old age. 
I refcued this city, the habitation of you all, the bulwark 

of kings and foreign nations, the light of the world, 

the feat of the empire, by the punifhment, cf five 

abandoned and.mad perfons. 
Could the ftate itfelf tell you its prefent fituation, you 



/ 

THE MAKING OF LATIN. 121 

Omnis autem in res confentio omnis gens lex natura 

putandus fum. 
In ipfe Graecia philofophia tantus in honor nunquam 

fum niii do&us contentio difputatioque vigeo, 

Cupiditas voluptas, et ftudium virtus, non faciiis in idem 

homo fum poifum. 
Praemeditatio futurus malum lenio is adventus qui 

veniens longe ante videor. 
Exilium ibi fum puto ubi virtus non fum lociis^mprs / 

natura finis fum non poena. /^ ,1^, ^fid*. lot- p ^ r 

Qui enim fum ipfe nomen amans indulgenfque materials , ? 
Aliquis contra mos confuetudoque civilis facio. 

•Commemoratio tuus paternus necefHtudo beiy&volentia- 

que is qui erga ego a pueritia confero increcubilis ego 

lastitia affero, 
Antiftbenes popularis Deus muitus, naturaiis unus fum 

dico. 
A. Ligurius Caefar familiaris morior, bonus homo, et 

ego amicus. 
Hie fum metis et frater rneus germanus patria. 
Quis t hic facio fi pofTum iratus qui cum fuccenfeo nemo 

poifum omnis bonus fui$. inimicus ? 

Hie ego ex P. Vedius mag^usfSfc^'-iJBl tainen pom» 

peius familiaris audio. •J^^P^I 

Non pomtsnis in tureprehendo qui in ego. ipfe et praetor 

et conful probo. T 

Cum hie pax volo M. Lepidus, vir ornatus et virtus et 

fort una don urn ? 
Tanquam porlus aliquis expecto jfte qui tu timeo, foli- 

tudo, fubfidium enim bellus exiftimo ium fenectus 

otium. 
Hie ego urbs fedes omnis -«after arx rex ac natio extcrus 

lumen gens domicilium imperiivm quinque homo 

aniens ac perdiius pcena redimo. 

Si ipfe res-publica tu narro poflum quis modus fui habeo 
M 



122 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

could not know it better from her, than from your 
freed-man Phanias ; the man is not only fo difcreet, 
but, as far as I have feen, fo inquifitive. 

Pleafure, the moil engaging miftrefs, turns afide mod 
minds from virtue ; and when the torch of adverfity 
is moved towards men, too many are frightened be- 
yond meafure ; life, death, riches, poverty, mod vio- 
lently affect all mankind. 

My friend Cneus is in much better fpirits at his arrival. 

It is peculiar to a well-turned mind, both to rejoice at 
profperity, and grieve at adverfity. 

Let alone, I beg of you, thofe things, which we can 
neither inquire after nor hear without uneafinefs, and 
rather afk if he has any thing new ; for Varfb'smufe 
has been filent longer than ufual. 

You have not confidered what an affair 'it is to go 
through a public trial ; to^ develope the whole life of 
another perfon, and prefent it not only to the under- 
ftanding, but to the eye of the judges, and in the fight 
of every one. 

Though it is more defirable to end qnr days without 
pain and without oppreflion ; yet it. adds greater glo- 
ry to our immortality, to be wifhed for and wanted 
by our fellow-citizens, than sever to have been injur- 
ed. 

Why is the fenate furrounded with a circle of armed 
men ? why do your body guards hear me .with therr 
fwords ? why are. not the doors of the temple of Con- 
cord thrown open ? You bring down people of allega- 
tions 5 the m oft barbarous Ithyreans, with their Ar- 
rows, are in the Forum. He fays that he does it for 
his own fafety : is it not a thoufand timts better. to pe- 
rifh, than not to.be able to live in your own city without 
the projection of armed men ? but truft me that it is 
no protection ; you ought to be guarded by the love 
and good will of your fellow-citizens. 
He could not long bear the fatigue of the bar, becaufe 
he was of a weak conftitution. 

Whc^is of fo abandoned a difpofition, who, when he fees 
mefe things, can be filent, or pafs them over ? 



THE MAKING OF LATIN- 123 

non facile ex is cognofco po/Tum, quam ex libertus 
tuus Phanias, ita fum homo non modo prudens, ve* 
rum, etiam qui video curiofus. 
V 7 oluptas blandus domina magftus pars animus a virtus 
detorqueo et dolor cum admoveo fax prseter modus 
plerique exterreo vita mors divitiae paupertas omni c 
homo vehementer permoveo. 

Qui adventus Cnseus nofter multo animus plus habeo.- 
Proprius fum animus bene couftitutus et Isetor bonus res 

et doleo contrarius. 
Omitto ifte qui nee percunclor nee audio fine moleftia 

poiTum et quaero potius an quis ipfe novus filep enim 

diutius rnufa Varro quam foleo. 

In mens tu non venio quis negotium fum caufa publicus 
fuilineo vita alter totus explico atque etiam non mo- 
do in animus judex fed etiam in oculus confp.eclufque- 
omnis expono. 

Etfi **ptabilis fum curfus .vita conficio fine dolor et 
fine injuria tamen ad immortalitas gloria plus aifero 
defideratus fum a fuus cives qufam \0mnin6 nunquam 
violatus fum. * 

Cur armatus corona fenatus fiepio ? cur ego tuus fatelles 
cum gladius aijdio^ cur valva Concordia non pateo ? 
homo omnis gens maxime bj|f barus* Ithyrseus cum fa- 
gitta deduco in Forum pra^fidium fuus cauifa fui facio 
dico nonne ^igitur millies pereo fum melius quam in' 
fuus ci vitas fine arma praefidium non poffum vivo, fed 
nullus fum iflui credo ego prasfidium caritas et bene- 
volentia civis faepio oportet fum non armi •" 



Is labor forenfis diuturne diutms non fero quod corpus 

fum infirmus. 
Quis tarn diffolutus animus fum qui hie cum video tace© 

ac negligo poffum i 



i2 4 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

In that purfuit, Ofaces the Parthian general, a man of 
great authority, received a wound, and died there a 
few days after. 

Such is his humanity, that it is difficult to fay whether 
the enemy feared his valour more in the field, or lov- 
ed his politeneis more, after they were conquered. 

Both your letters, and fome igood news, not indeed of 
the beft authority, and the'expectation of hearing from 
you, and your defire, detains me as yet at Theffalo- 
nica. 

I am now in want of your advice, your afFeclion, your 
fidelity ; haite then, every thing will be eafy to me if 
I have you. 

He denied that there was any occafion for reafon or ar- 
gument, to fhew why pleafure mould be fought for, 
and pain avoided ; he thinks that is to be perceived, as 
that fire burns, fnow is white, honey fweet* 

I want not any Greek mailer to repeat trite precepts to 
me, when he bimfelf never faw the forum, or any 
court of juftice. 

I know indeed, Atticus, that this undertaking has often 
been requefted cf me, which I would not refufe, if 
fufficient and free leiiure might be allowed me ; but 
the mind cannot undertake a bufinefs of fuch confe- . 
quence, whilft it is taken up with any other occupa- 
tion or hindrance ; for it is neceiTary that it mould 
be free both from care and bufinefs. 

Why fhould I fay that learning is neceffary ? without 
which, * although any ft»< ihould fp^ak well by the 
affiftance of natural abilitiispf yet,**as that mud hap- 
pen by chance, it is impoffible pat- he could be al- 
ways prepared. , 

I am not fo mad, judges, nor fo ignorant of, or unac- 
qu:imved, with, your fentiments, as not to know what 
J you thinl of Clodius's death. 

What citizen is here fo forgetful of your favours, fo un- 
mindful of his country, fuch an enemy to his own 
honour, whom your general approbation will not in- 
flame I V* 

After the continuance of peace had aflured to each one 
fufficient leifure, there was hardly any young man 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 125 

Qui in fuga magnus authoritas Ofaces dux Parthu r j 
vulnus accipio eoque intereo pauci poft dies. 

Humanitas jam tardus fum ut difficilis dico fum utram 

hollis magis virtus is nutans timeo an maniujtuuo 

v ictus diligo. 
Ego et tuus litene et quidam bonus nuncius non bonus 

tameii auctor et expectatio veder litcr«e et quod tu ita 

placet) adhuc Theiialonica teneo. 

Nunc j£o et concilium opus Aim tuus et amor et; fides 
quflre advolo ^j^tditus ego fum omnis li tu habeo. 

Nego opus fum ratio neque difputatio quamobrern vo- 
hiptas expetendus fugiendus dolor fum, fentio hie pu- 
to ut caleo ignis nix fum albus dulcis mei. 

Nee ego opus fum Graecus aliquis doctor qui ego per- 
vulgatus praeceptum decanto cum ipfe nunquam fo- 
rum nunquam uilus judicium afpicio. 

Intelligo equidem a ego i-ite labor jam diu poftulo At- 
ticus qui non recufo, ii ego ullus tribuo vacuus tern- 
pus et lib£r neque enini occupo opera, neque impedio 
animus, re^ tantus fufpicio poiium uter.que opus fum 
ct cura vaco et negotium.. 



Quis dico opus fum doctrina fine qui etiam fi cuts bene 
dicor adjuvans natura tamen is quia fortuito no fem- 
per paraius mm non poifum. 



Nee tarn fum demens judex tamque veiter fenfus igna- 

rus atque expers ut nefcio quis de mors Clodius 

fentio. 
Quis fum civis tarn oBlitus ben.eflcium >vefler tarn im- 

memor patria tarn inimicus dignatas futfs qui non in- 

flammo confenfus vertex I 

Poflquam diuturm'tas pax otium^ confirmo nemo fere 
M 2 



126 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

emulous of commendation, who did not think ha 
ought to apply to the art of fpeaking with his utmoft 
endeavours. 
Which of thefe opinions is true, fome god may have de- 
termined ; which is neareft to the truth, is a great dif- 
pute. ^ 

Exercife and temf erince can preferve fome part of our 

former ftrength, even in old age. 
Though I in particular of all perfons, am lead qualified 
to confole you, becaufe I have felt fo much uneafi- 
nefs from your grief, that I myfelf want confolation ; 
yet as my concern is farjntferior to yours, in the bit- 
ternefs of the higheft affliction, I considered it as in- 
cumbent on our friendfhip, and my regard for you, 
not to continue filent in your prefent trouble, but to 
offer fuch confiderations as may alleviate, if not fub- 
due, your anguifh. 
That year was his firft after going out of office. 
Death feems to me an evil. To thofe who are dead, 

or to thofe who. are yet to die ? To both. 
Do you allow this, Pomponius, that all nature is govern- 
ed by the might, the reafon, the power, the intelli- 
gence, the influence (or if there is any other word by 
which I can more plainly exprefs my meaning) of the 
immortal gods ? I do indeed allow it, if you require 
it. 
Nothing is more excellent than the government of the 
univerfe ; therefore the univerfe is governed by the 
wifdom of the gods. 
None of your many virtues is more pleafmg, or more 

aftohifning, than yodf companion. 
But mould you go into Britain alfo, truly there will be 
no one in that great ifland more fkilful than yourfelf. 
There is nothing more hateful than difgrace ; nothing 
more fhameful than ilavery. We were torn to ho- 
nour and liberty ; let us preferve thefe, Or die with 
dignity. 
I wifh for thefe two things only ; one, that at my death 
I may leave the Roman people free ; the immortal 
gods can grant me nothing greater than this : the 
other, that, according as each man deferves of the 
ftate, fo he may fucceed. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 127 

Iaus cupidus adolefcens non fui ad dico ftudium 
omnis enitor puto. 

Hie fententia qui verus Aim deus aliquis video qui ve- 
rum fimilis magnus quaeftio fum. 

^Poffum exercitatio et temperantia in feneclus etiam ali- 
quis confervo priftinis robur. 
Etfi unus ex omnis minime fum ad tu confolandus ac- 
commodatus, quod tantus ex tuus moleftia capio do- 
lor, ut confolatio ipfe egeo tamen cum longius a fum- 
mus luclus a cerbitas meus abfum dolor quam tuus, 
ftatuo nofter necefHtas fum meus que in tu benevolen- 
tia non taceo tantus in tuus maeror tamdiu, fed adhi- 
beo aliquis modicus confolatio qui levo dolor tuus 
pofTum h* minus fano pofiiim. 

Qui annus is primus ab honus perfunclio fum. 

Malum ego videor fum mors is ne qui mortuus fum vel 

qui morior fum uterque. 
Do ne igitur hie ego Pomponius deus immortalis vis 

ratio poteftas mens numenlfive qui fum alius verbum 

qui plena fignifico qui volo natura omnis rego do 

fane fi poitulo. 



Nihil fum praeclarus. mundus adminiftratio deus igitur 
confiiittH* adminiftra^o mundus. 

Nullus de virtus tuus plurimus nee gratus nee admira- 

bilis mifericondia fum. 
Quod fi in Britannia quoque proficifcor profecto nemo 

in ille-t-antus infula peritus tu fum. 
Nihil fum deteflabilis dedecus nihil fcedus fervitus ad 

decus et ad libertas natus aut hie teneo aut cum dig- 

nitas morior. 

Duo modo hie opto unus ut morior populu? Rcmanus 
liber relinquo hie ego magnus a dii immortalis do 
nihil pofmm alter ut ita quifque evenio ut de res-pub- \ 
lica quifque bene mereor. 



ii3 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

There is nothing more amiable than virtue ; nothing 
that will more engage the affections of mankind : lor 
inftance, when we, in fome degree, love thole whom 
we have never feen, on account of their virtue and in- 
tegrity. 

They feem to give good advice, who admonifh us, that 
the more exalted we are, the more humble we ihould 
behave. 

A certain ardency for glory, unufual to young men, 
abforbed him. # 

Good health is more pleafmg to thefe who have reco- 
vered from a dangerous iilnefs, than to thofe who 
have never been fick. 

The fame labours are not equally painful to the foldicr 
and the commander, becauie honour itielf lightens the 
commander's labour. 

Nothing certainly can be better for a man, than to be 
tree from all pain and trouble, and- to enjoy the great- 
eft pleaitrre both of mind and body. 

Let as meditate upon death, >ind detach ourfelves from 
cur bodies ; that is, let us accuitom ourfelves to die ; 
this will be like that celeltial life, even while we fhalj 
be in this world* 

It has been agreed upon in general amongft all men. 
that the object upon which prudence mould be em- 
ployed, and which it would wiih to obtain, ought to 
be fitted and accommodated to our nature, and fuch 
as by itfelf ihould invite and entice the inclination. 

Let us be of that difpofition, which reafon and truth 
prefcribes, to think that we mould * avoid nothing in 
life but guilt, and whilft we can be free from that, let 
us bear all human events with patience and modera^- 
tion ; for when every thing elfe is loft., virtue feems 
able to fupport itfelf. 

As you are of fuch weight, Cato> you ought not to catch 
at fcandal from the ftreet, or ibme abufive. difcourfe 
of individuals ; nor ihould you raihly call the conful 
of the Roman people a dancer. 

They heard of him before, but now they fee him amongft 
them, bled with fuch temperance, mildnefs, and hu- 
manity, that they feem to be mo ft happy with whem 
he fpends moil time. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. u$ 

Nihil fum enim amabilis virtus nihil qui magis allicio 
homo ad diiigo quippe cum propter virtus et probitas 
is etiam qui nunquam video qmdam mos diiigo. 



Recte prarcipio videor qui monetj lit quantus faperior 
fum tan t us ego gero fubmiffe. 

Hie quoque abforbeo aeflus quidam infolitus adalefcens 

gloria. 
Bonus valetudo jucundus fum is qiii e gravis morbus 

recreo quam qui nunquam jeger corpus fum. 

Idem labor nort fum «que gravis imperator et miles 
quod ipfe honor labor levis facio imperator. 

Nihil certe homo pc/Ium bonus fum quam vaco omnis 

dolor et mole (Ha perfruorque magnus et animus et 

corpus voluptas. 
Mors commentor disjungo que.ego-a corpusis fum .con- 

fuefco morior hie et.dum fum. in terra fum ille.caelef- 

tis vita fimilis. 

Confto autem fere inter omuls is in qui prudentia verfor 
et qui afTequor volo aptus et accommodatus natura 
fum oportet, et talis ut ipfe pei^fui invito et allicio 
appetitus animi. 

Sum is mens qui ratio et Veritas prefcribo ut nihil in vita 
ego prasftandus praster culpa puto ifque cum careo 
cmnis humanus placate et moderate fero perditus enim 
res omnis ipfe Virtus fi fuftento ppffiim videor. 



Cum ifte fum authoritas non debeo Cato arripio male- 
dictum ex trivium aut ex fcurra aliquis convicium 
neque temere conful populus Romauus faltator voco. 

Hie audio antea nunc pnefens video tantus temperantin ' 
tantus manfuetudo tantus humanitas ut is beatus fum 
video apud qui iile diuturne commoror. 



1 

Tjo AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Such was the virtue and wifdom of our anceftors, that 
in framing their laws they propofed to themfelves 
notliing eligftuuthe fafety and advantage of the com- 
monwealtJK^r 

Seem we indeed all then of fo mean a ' difpofition, who 
are engaged in public affairs, and the dangers of this 
life, as to fuppofe, that when, even to the end, we have 
led a life of no eafe, no quiet, every thing dies with 
us ? or when many of the greateft men have been care- 
ful to leave ftatues and pictures, not the images of 
their minds, but their bodies, ought not we much ra- 
ther to defire to leave the^Sgy of our wifdom and 
virtue, tmifhed and polifhed by the greateft genius ? 

Dionifius himfelf fhowed how «happy he was, for whtn 
Damocles oae oPhis flatterers Was in afpeech celebrat- 
ing his pow^ his wealth, the extent of his dominions, 
the magnificence of 4iis palace/; and affirmed that no 
one was ever happier — Damocles, fay^Ae, fmGe this 
life appears fo agreeable to you, wjJBteuwifhto 
experience it,, and put yourfelf in my fl Bj|tW"hen 
he faid he mould like it," he orderecitnWPSN^o be 
placed upon a golden couch, with a very handfome 
mattrefs, and a woven counterpane, painted with the 
mod elegant figures; he fet out feveral fide-boards 
with filver and gold emboffed plate, and ordered boys 
of moft exquifite beauty to be felecled to wait at table, , 
and with the utmoft attention to obferye his looks ; : 
perfumes and garlands were added, gumiwere burnt, 
and the entertainment loaded with the choiceft dain- 
ties. Damocles thought himfelf very fort&aate ; but 
in the midft of this apparatus, he ordered a glittering 
fword to be fufpended from the ceiling by £\"£n^le 
Horfe hair, that it might hang upon the neck of this 
Happy man ; he could then no longer look upon life 
beautiful attendants, nor the plate erouded with the 
workman's art, nor could he reach out his hand to 
the table, and even the garland dropt from his head ; 
at lad he entreated the tyrant to permit him to retire, 
for he did not choofe to be a happy man any longer. 
Don't you think that Dionifius proved that no one 
could be happy who is in terror ? 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. i 3 x 

Is enim virtus ct fapicntia majorcs nofter fum ut in Ie>c 
fcribendus nifi ialus atque utiiitas res-publica fui alius 
nihil propono. 

An vero tam parvus animus videor fum omnis, qui m 
res-publica atque in hie vita periculum labor que ver- 
for, ut cum ufque ad extremus ipatium nullus tran- 
quillus atque otiofus fpiritus duco, ego cum fimul 
moriturus omnis arbitror an cum ftatua et imago non 
animus fimulachrum fed corpus ftudiofe multus fum- 
mus homo relinquo confilium relinquo ac virtus noder 
effigies non multo malo debeo fummus ingenium ex- 
preffus et politus ? 

Dionifius ipfe indico quam fum beatus cum qtu'dam ex 
is affentator Damocles commemoro in fermo ,copia is 
opis, majeftas, dominatus magnificentia aedes regins 
nego que unquam beatus quifque fum yolo ne igitur 
inquam. O Damocles quoniam hie tu vita cFelecto ipfe 
idem degufto et fortuna experiqr meus, cum fui ille 
cupio dico collocor jubeo homo in aureus leclus, 
(Iratum pulcher textilis ftragulum rriagnifkus opus 
pictus abacufque corriplures, orno argentum auriprique 
caslatus turn ad menfa, eximiu$ forma puer delectus 
jubeo c^onfifto ifque ad nutus ille intuens diligenter 
miniftro adfum unguentum corona iucendeo odor 
menfa conquifitus epulse exftruo fortunatus fui Da- 
mocles videor v in hie medius apparatus fulgens gladius 
e lacunar feta equirius appenfus demitto jubeo ut im- 
pendeojlle beatus cervix itaque, nee pulcher ille ad- 
miniftrator afpicio, nee plenus ars argentum, nee ma» 
nus porrigo in menfa jam ipfe deffluo corona denique 
exora tyrannus, ut abeo libet quod jam beatus nolo 
fum fatis, ne videor declaro Dionifius nihil fum is 
beatus qui femper aliquis terror impciadeo ? 



i 3 2 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

In this particular your condition is better than ours, that 
you dare write what you complain of: we cannot tru- 
ly do that in fafety, and this not through any fault of 
the conqueror, for nothing can be more moderate than 
he is.; but of the conqueit, which is always infolent in 
civil wars. 

If there is any thing in nature which the mind of man, 
which human reaXon, which human flrength,' which 
human p_ower, could not produce, certainly the being 
who .produces that, is fuperior to man ; but the 
heavenly bodies, and all thofe things whofe arrange- 
ment is perpetual, could not be framed by man ; there 
is therefore fomething which, fuperior to man, pro- 
duces them, and what can I better call that, than 
God? 

/Of all the employments by which any profit is made, 
there is nothing better than agriculture, nothing- 
more advantageous, nothing more pleafmg, nothing 
more. worthy of a man who is free. / 

When God .lias given you a foul, than/ which nothing is 
more excellent, more divine, will you fo degrade^ fo 
humble yourfelf, as to think there is no difference Be- 
tween you and one t of the brutes ?^~-"' 

It is difpleafmg to a delicate iriar/to afk any thing of 

confequence from .one whom the may think he has 

obliged, left he fhould.feem rather to demand than 

requeft for what he afks — and coniider it as a pay- 

s ment, rather than a favour. 

Confcript fathers, I will io behave myfelf in this office, 
that I may have it in my power to check a tribune of 
the people, Jf he takes offence at government ; to def- 
pife him, if he takes offence at me. 

It is of the greateft confequence in friendfliip for the 
fuperior ta be upon an equality with the inferior, as 
Scipio was ; he never aiTumed any fuperiority over 
Rupilius or Mummius, or any friend of an inferior 
rank. 

It is right to be firft of all a good man yourfelf, and 
then to feek out for one that is like you. 

He who could perceive by his mind the revolutions, and 
all the motions, of the ftars, (hews that his mind was 
like his who made them in heaven. 






THE MAKING OF LATIN. 133 

Hie ipfe bonus fum tuus quam nofter conditio quod tu 
quis doleo fcribo audeo ego ne is quidem tuto poifum 
nee is victor vitium qui nihil moderatus, led ipie \ ic- 
toria qui civilis bellum Temper fum iniolens. 



Si fum aliquis in res natura qui homo mens qui ratio, 
qui vis qui poteftas humanus eihcio non poifum ium 
certe is qui ille efficio homo bonus atqui res caeieitis 
omnifque is qui ium ordo fempiternus ab homo con- 
iicio non poflum fum igitur is qui ille conficio homo 
bonus is autem quis potius dico quam Deus ? 



Omnis res ex qui aliquis exquiro nihil fum agricultura 
bonus nihil uber nihil dulcis nihil homo liber riignus. 



Tu cum tu Deus do animus qui nihil fum praedans 
bene divinus fie tu ipfe abjicio atque proflerno ut ni- 
hil inteitu et quadrupes aliquis puto interfum. . 

gravis fum homo pudens peto aliquis magatis is de qui 
iui bene meritus puto ne is qui peto, exigo magis 
quam rogo, et in merces potius quam beneficium lo- 
cus numero videor. 

Sic ego in hie magiftratus gero P. C. ut poflum tribu- 
nus plebs res-public a iratus coerceo ego iratus con- 
temno. 

Magnus fum in amicitia fuperior par fum inferior qua^ 
lis fum Scipio nunquam iui ille Rupilius nunquam 
Mummius untepono nunquam inferior ordo amicus. 

Par fum autem priinum ipfe fum vir bonus tam alter fi- 

milis iui quxro. 
Stella converiiq omnis que motus qui animus video, is 

doceo fimilis animus fuus is fum qui is fabric ams ia 

ccelum ium. N 



aH AN INTRODUCTION TO 

You have crept into honours by the miftake of mankind, 
by the recommendation of fmoke-dried ftatues, which 
you are like in nothing but in complexion. 

There are certain animals in whom there is fomething 
like virtue ; as in lions, in dogs, in horfes. 

There is a certain cultivation and perfection in thofe 
things which the earth produces, not diflimilar to liv- 
ing creatures : ihus we fay that a vine lives and dies ; 
that a tree is young or old, flour.iihes or. decays. 

.Every virtue has its proper employment ; Fortitude is 
feen in fupportwg pain and danger ; temperance in 
negle.clin.g , pleafure ; prudence in fele. cling between 
good and bad ; juflice in rendering to every one his 
own. 

They think this not inconfiftent with the majefty of the 
. gods, namely, that they ftiould examine into v the cau- 
ies of all things, that they may fee what will be bene- 
ficial to every one. 

This article is peculiar to Ccefar alone. 

Other nations can endure flavery, but liberty is e/Tentiai 
, to the Roman, people. 

The whole univerfe is to be confidered as one city, com- 
mon to r ds r.nd men. 

The heavenly mind is kept down from its moft lo^ty ha- 
bitation, and as it were irr.merfed in xh'eLeartJh, which 
is a place contrary to its, diyjne,. nature and eternity. 

Since things are now reduced to this dilemma whether 
he fhall be punifhed by the ftate, or we ill all be flavca, 
let us, O cenfeript fathers, by the immortal Gods, al 
length affume our xative courage and virtue, that 
we may recover that liberty which is peculiar to the 
Reman people and name, or prefer death to flavery. 

■ In this I am more miferable than you who are mc& 
miferable, that the calamity is common to us both* 
. but the fault entirely my own. 

As this argument is common to other philcfophcrs alfo, 
I will emit it at prefent. I rather chcofe to proceed 
to thofe which are properly yours. 

That opinion, .confeript fathers, is inconfiftent with the 
dignity of the ccnfuls, inconfi/tent with the gravity of 
the times. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. x 3 y 

Obrepo ad honor error homo ctftnmeitdatio fumofus 
imago qui iimilis habco nihil piaster color; 

Sum beftia quidam in qui infum aliquis iimilis' virtus ut 
in loo ut in cants ut in equasi ■ 

Is etiam res qui terra gigno educatio quidam et per- 
fe&io fum non diffimilis animans itaque et vivo vitis 
ct morior dico arborque et novellus et vetulus et vigeo 
fenefco. 

Proprius, quifque' virtus munus fum ut fortitudo in la- 
bor periculumque cerno temperantia in praster mit- 
tendus voluptas prudentia in delectus bonus et malus 
juilitia in fuua quifque tribuendus. 

Nego enim is fum alienus, majeftas deus fcilicet. caufa 
omnis introfpicio ui video quis qui conduce. 



Hie res unus fum proprius Casfan 

Alius natio fervitus patiqr poffum pqyulus Romanus 

proprius fum libertas. t-<V . (/ ' u '" *• - 
Univerfus hie mundus unus' civitas communis Deus at- 

que homo exiftimandus fum. 
Sum animus caeleitis ex altus domicilium depreffus et 

quafi demerfus in terra locus divinus natura et «ter- 

nitas contfarms. 
Quoniam res in is difcrimen adehfeo utrum ille poena res- 

publica luo, an nos fervio aliquando per Deus im- 

mortalis P. C. patrius animus virtufque capio, ut aut 

libertas proprius Romanus genus et nomen recupero 

aut mors fervitus antepono. 

Ego hie mifer (urn quam tu qui fum mifer quod ipfe 

calamitas communis fum uterque noRer f^d culpa 

meus proprius fum. 
Quia communis fum hoc argumentum alius etiam phi- 

lofophus omitto hie tempus ad verier proprius venio 

malo. 
Ille P. C. alienus conful dignitas alienus tempus gravi* 

tas fententia fum. 



13« AN INTRODUCTION TO 

What fiiould a man do who was born to virtue, glory, 
dignity, when the power of wicked men was ftrength- 
ened, and the laws and the courts were deftroyed ? 

But what men will enjoy the land ? fa the firft place, 
truly, the bold, ready for violence, prepared for fedi- 
tion. 

Will a man, born to glory, have any part of his mind fo 
effeminate, as not to iirengthen it by meditation and 
reafon ? 

Although he was a friend to truth, yet he feemed by 
nature not fo prone to companion, as inclined to feve- 
rity. 

My contemporary, Pompey, a man born to every thing 
great, would have acquired a higher character as a 
ipeaker, had not the defire of greater glory drawn him 
off to military honours. 

When we have begun to look round us, and perceive 
what we may be, and wherein we differ from other 
animals, then we begin .to plirfue thofe things to which 
w r e were born. 

Who ever believes that what is liable to deftruclion and 
accident will continue firm, and fixed in its power ? 

Whenever we are free from our neceffary bufmefs and 
cares, then we defire to hear, to fee, and to learn feme- 
thing. 

Menander came to me the day after I expecled him, fo 
that I had a night full of anxiety and uneafmefs. 

Who is there that does not at firit lament the death of 
her relations ? on this account, becaufe fhe thinks they 
are deprived of the common benefits of life. 

Thence I went to Amanus, which divides Syria from Ci- 
licia by a water-courfe, which mountain was full of 
our hereditary eiiemies. 

If thofe things which are completed by nature, are more 
perfect than thofe things which are completed by art, 
and art does nothing without reafon, nature truly can- 
not be confidered as void of reafon. 

He even repeated the letters which he fays I fent him ; 
a man void of humanity, and ignorant of common 
life ; for who, that underftood even the leaft of good 
manners, would ever, in confequence of any quarrel 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 137 

Quis ago vir ad virtus dignltas gloria natus vis fcelera- 
tus homo corroboratus lex judicium que fublatus. 

At qui homo ager poffideo primo quidcm accr ad vis 
promptus, ad feditio paratus. 

Vir nafcor ad gloria ullus pars animus tarn mollis habe® 
quam non meditatio et ratio corroboro. 

Tametfi Veritas fum amicus tamen natura non tarn pro- 

penilis ad mifericordia quam inclinatus ad feveritas 

videor. 
Meus aequalis Pompeius vir ad omnis fummus natus 

magnus dico gloria habeo niii is magnus gloria cupi- 

ditas ad belli,cu*s laus abitralio. 

Cum defpicio cocpi e^ fentio quis fum et quis ab animans 
c^ter differo tuons iequor incipio ad qui nafcor. 



Quis confido Temper fui tile ftabilis et firmns permanfu- 

rus fum qui fragilis., et caducus fum. 
Cum fum necellariuyaegotium curaque vacuus turn aveo 



aliquis video au^RiCydifco.. 



ly^ie.2ra e£ 



Menandrus pofty^ie && ego venio quam expecto itaque 

habeo nox plenus trmor.ac miferia. 
Quis fum qui fuus mt>rs primum non.eo lugeo quod is 
t orbatus vita comrjiodum arbitror. 

Inde ad Amanus cojitendo qui Syria a Cilicia aqua di- 

vortium divido q-u$nion& fum hoftis plenus fempiter- 

nus. 
Si bonus fum is qui natura quam ille qui ars perrlcio nee 

ars.emcio quifquam fine ratio ne natura quidem ratio 

expers fum habendus. 

Etiam literx qui ego fui mitto dico recito homo et hu- 

manitas expers et vita communis ignarus quis enim 

unquam paullulum rnoda, bonus confuetudo nofco 

liters ad fui ab amicus miifus offeniio aliquis inter- 

N 2 



O 



i 3 8 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

arifmg, produce and repeat in public the letters which 
his friend fent him ? 

Indeed even the air itfelf, which is extremely cold, is ve- r 
ry far frorn being without heat. // } y 

Italy was th e" fall of Graecian arts and Gnecian learn- p 
ing. -•""- f / 

If every part of the univerfe is governed by Providence, 
it neceffarily follows that the whole is fo : and in this 
government there is nothing that can be found fault 
with, fmce, from every kind of being that exifts, the 
beft fyilem poffible has been produced : let any one 
then fhew how it could have been better. But no one 
will ever fhew this ; for, ihould a man wifii to alter any 
part of it, he would either render it worfe, or attempt 
what is impoflible. If then every part of the univerfe 
is fo constituted that it could not be more adapted to 
the purpofe for which it was intended, nor more beau- 
tiful in its appearance, let us confider whether thefe 
things have happened by chance, or whether they 
are in a fituation in which they could not have been 
fixed but by the regulation of divine wifdom and 
providence ; for if the productions of nature are more 
perfect than thofe of art, and art can do nothing with- 
out intelligence, it follows that nature itfelf can never 
be fupported without it : for how is this confident ? 
When you fee a ftatue, or a picture, you recognize it 
to be the work of art ; or when you fee the ccurfe of a 
\ T efTel at a diiiance, you hefitate not to conclude that 
it is moved by feme principle, and fome fkill ; or 
when you look upon a time-piece, you know that the 
hours are marked out by rule, and not by accident ; 
and yet you fuppofe that the univerfe itfelf which con- 
tains every art, and every artificer, and all things 
elfe, is without reafon and defign. Should any one 
alfo carry that orrery into Scythia, or Britain, which 
cur friend Poflidonius made, the revolutions of which 
produce the fame motions in the fun, moon, and the 
five planets, which are produced in the heavens every 
day and night ; who in thefe barbarous countries 
would doubt wheth r this orrery was the work of in- 
telligence ? And yet thefe perfons make it a matter of 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 139' 

pofitus in mctlius profero palamque recito. ^-^> - l'#d.. 



Ipfe vero aer qui natura fum maxime frigidus minime 

Aim cxpers calor. P ' , /7 J 

Sum Italia turn plenus Graecus ars ac difciplina/'* f ;/' 

Si mundus pars natura adminiftror neceffc fum mundus 
ipfe natura adminiftror, qui quidem adminiftratio ni- 
hil habeo in fui qui reprehendor poffum ex is enim na- 
tura, qui fum qui efficior poffum optimus efficior do 
ceo ergo aliquis poffum melior, fed nemo unquam do 
ceo, et fi quis corrigo aliquis volo aut deterior facio 
aut is qui fio non poffum defidero quod fi omnis mun- 
dus pars ita conftituor, ut neque ad ufus melior pof- 
fum fum, neque ad fpecies pulchrior video utrum is 
fortuitus fum an flatus qui coriaereo nullus modus pof- 
fum nil! fenfus moderans divinus que providentia, ' fi 
ergo melior fum is qui natura, quam ille qui ars per- 
ficlor nee ars effici© quis que line ratio ne natura qui- 
dem ratio expers, fum habendus qui igitur conve- 
nio lignum aut tabula pictus cum afpicio fcio ad- 
hibitus fum ars cumque procut curfus navigium vi- 
deo, non dubitoquin cum is ratio atque ars moveor 
aut cum foiarium contemplor intelligo declaror bora 
ars non cams mundus autem, qui et hie ipfe ars et is 
artifex et cunclus compledlor confilium et ratio fum 
expers, puto quod fi in Scythia aut in Britannia 
fphaera aliquis fero hie qui nuper familiaris nofter 
efficio Pofidonius qui fmgulus converfio idem efHcio 
in fola et in luna, et in quinque ilella errans qui effi- 
cior in ccelum fmgulus dies et nox quis in iile barba- 
ries dubito quin is fphsera perficior ratio hie autem 
dubito de mundus ex qui et orior et fio omnis eafiis 
ne ipfe fum effectus aut neceffitas aliquis an ratio an 
mens' divinus et Antimedes arbitror plus valeo in imi~ 
tandus fphaera converico quam natura in eiSciendus, 



Mo AN INTRODUCTION TO 

doubt whether the univerfe, which is the origin and 
caufe of every thing, is produced by chance or necef- 
iity, or reafon and the divine mind, and can think that 
Antimedes (hewed greater abilities fn*imitating the 
motions of. the heavenly bodies, than nature in fram- 
ing them. 

Nothing little,, or common, or vulgar, feems- by any 
means worthy of admiration and praiie. 

As folly, although.it has- acquired what it defired, never 
thinks it has obtained enough, fo wifdom is always 
contented with what is at hand. 

I think that the knowledge of futurity would by no 
means be ufeful to/us ; for what would have been 
Priam's life, if J>C had known from his youth what 
things he lhoirlcl have fuifered in his old age ? 

Your iincere affection ihews itfeif in every part of that 
letter which; I received from you laft ; an affection 
indeed which I was well acquainted with, but yet 
the njfurance of it was very agreeable and very accep- 
table ; I would fay pleaiaiit,. had I not -forever loll 
the ufe of that word, . not only for that reafon whieh 
you fufpect, and for which, though in the tendereli 
manner, you in fad feverely biame me, but alfo 
becaufe there are no remedies at hand which ought 
to heal fo grievous a wound : for what fhall I do I 
ftiall I take refuge in my friends ? Where, alas ! are 
they ? We had once indeed many, in a manner, that 
were common to us both, fome of whom are dead, 
• others, I know not how, grown hard-hearted. I 
might indeed live with you, and I greatly wifh it ; 
our time of life, our affection, our hab'ts, our ftudies 3 
are the fame : what obilacle, then, what circumilance, 
prevents our union ? 

Ke is weak, from the infirmity of his head. 

No action of theirs can be ufeful, while it is diftained 
with.fo many crimes.. 

A few perfons, and indeed a very few, eminent for their 
honour and. dignity, can either eafily corrupt or cor- 
rect the morals of the ftate., 

Philofophy is content with few judges, avoiding the 
multitude on purpoie. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 141 



Neque res parvus, neque ufitatus, neque vulgaris admi- 

ratio aut omnino laus dignus videor foleo. 
Ut ttultitia etfi adipifcor qui concupifco nunquam fui 

tamen fatis confequor puto lie iapientia femper is 

contentus fum qui adlum. 
Ego ne utilis arbitror fum ego futurus res fcientia qui 

enim vita Priamus fum ii ab adclefccntia fcio qui 

eventus ienectus fum habiturus. 

Omnis amor tuus ex omnis pars fui oftendo in is literae 
qui a tu proxime accipio, non ille quidem ego iguotus 
fed tamen gratus et optatus dico jucundus niii is ver- 
bum in omnis tempus perdo neque ob is unus caufa 
qui tu fufpicor et in qui ego leniffimui et am ant i dim us 
verbum utens res graviter accufo fed quod ille tantus 
vulnus qui remedium fum debeo is nullus fum quis 
enim ad amicus ne confugio quam multus fum habeo 
enim fere communis, qui alius occido alius nefcio quis 
pa&um obdurio tu cum vivo poflum equidem, et 
maxime volo vetuftas amor confuetudo ftudium pars 
qui vinculum, qui res defum noiler conjunctio. 



Debilis innrmus caput. 

Nullus is factum poflum utilis -fum cum fum tot vitium 

inquinatus. 
Pauci atque admodum pauci honor et gloria amplifko 

vel corrumpo mos civitas vel corrigo pcifum. 

Philofophia pauci contentus judex multitudo confulto 
fufrio. 



I4J AN INTRODUCTION TO 

There is nothing more laudable, nothing more worthy 
a great and illuftriouS perion, than mildnefs and cle- 
mency. 

The Campanians are always proud of the goodnefs of 
their foil and produce, the extent, the wholeibmenefs, 
the phi», the beauty, of their city. 

Servius, as I wrote to you before, when he arrived on 
the nones of May, came to me the day after : Not to 
detain you too long, I never faw a man more confut- 
ed through fear. 

The poets introduce the gods inflamed with anger, and 
raging with luit. 

He was always of a weak, and indeed bad, habit of 
body. 

As men ill of fome dangerous diftemper, and toiling with 
a burning fever, if they drink cold water, at firft feem 
to be relieved, but afterwards are much more grie- 
vouily and vehemently afflicted, fo this difeafe which 
is in the ftate, being relieved with his punifhment, 
will grow very far worfe, if the reft are permitted to 
live. 

When Epaminondas had conquered the Lacedaemonians 
at Mantinea, and at the fame time faw himfelf dying 
with a mortal wound, as foon as he perceived it, he 
inquired if his fhield was^fafe: when bis weeping 
friends replied that it was, he afked If the enemy was 
routed : when he heard that this alfo was as he wi fil- 
ed, he ordered the fpear to be drawn out that had 
pierced him : thus, with a proiufion of blood, he died 
in the midft of happinefs and victory. . 

You can perceive, from the letters of Brutus, his excel- 
lent diipofition, worthy both himfelf and , his ancef- 
tors. 

I have admitted Nivmcrtius with great pleafure into my \ 
rrienufkip, and know the man to be fteady, prudent, 
and worthy of your recommendation. 

Relying upon your politenefs, I will give you that ad^v 
which fhall fecm to me the belt., upon that affair 
mentioned to me. 

B t ut indeed we both accufe, and hold thofe worthy of t! 
bigheft contempt, who, being foftened and corruptee! 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. * 43 

Nihil laudabilis nihil magnus et prxclarus vir dignus 
placabilitas atque dementia. 

Campanus fcmper fuperbus bonitas ager ct frifcftus mag- 
niludo urbs ialubritas defcriptio puichriuuto. 

Servius ut antea fcribo cum verio nonae Maius poftri- 
die ad ego venio ne diuturne tu teneo nunquam vi- 
deo homo perturbatus melus. 

Pocta et ira inflammo et libido, furens ind.uco Deui. 

• Is Temper inilrmus atquc etiam ;i.ge: \aletudo fum. 

vUt homo.xger morbus gravis cum ieftus febrifque jac- 
ta.fi aqua gelidus bibo prim© relcvo . videor deinde 
inuko gravis vehementerque affli&o lie hie morbuv 
qui fum irTres-publica relevatus iflc pceaa virus re- 
liquus ingraveico. 



uCpaminondas cum vincc Lacedamionius apud Manti- 
nea ilmulque ipie gravis vulnus exanimo fui video ut 
primum defpicio quarro falvus ne fum clipeus, cum 
falvus fum flens iuus refpondeo rogo fum ne turns hof- 
tis cumque is quoque ut cupio audio evejlo jubeo b 
qui fum transfix us hafta ita multus fanguis .profufus 
fin laetitiajjj in victoria fum mortuus. J0& 



Animus is egregius dignufque et ipfe et majores is ei 
Brutus literal perfpicio poiium. 

Jtfumertius libenter accipio in amicitia et homo gravis et 
prudens et dignus tuus commendatio cognofto. 

Fretus tuus humanitas qui verus ego videor de is qui ad 
-ego fcribo tu coniilium do. 

At vgro is et accufo et jtiftus odium dignus duco qui 
blanditi?: prxieas voluptaa delinitus atque corruptus 



144 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

by the blandifhments of pleafure, blinded by their 
pailions, do not forefee the pain, the trouble, they are 
to meet with. 

As feniible old men are pleafed with young perfons who 
are bleit with a happy difpofition, fo theie are happy 
in the advice of their feniors, by which they are train- 
ed to the ftudy of virtue. 

Relying on your fidelity and wifdom, I have taken up 
a greater burthen than I am able to fupport. 

L. Suetius, a wife man, bleft with every accomplifh- 
rnent, being fworn, declared before you, that many 
Roman citizens were by violence moft cruelly put to 
death by his command. 

If neceifary, I myfelf will mention, withreferve, in what 
manner I became worthy of yGur higheft honours, 
and your favourable opinion. 

Do we not think that many deferve fome cenfure, who 
feem by any motion or polition to defpife the law and 
the cuftom of nature f 

Lucullus, blefb with inch a genius, added alfo that prac- 
tice which Themiitocles deipiied. 

When we fee thoie places which we have heard, men 
worthy of remembrance have frequented, we are more 
arreted than either when we hear of their actions, or 
read their .works. 

Indeed I have always med my utmoil endeavours, in 
the firft place, that I might be worthy of honour ; in 
the fecond, that I might be thought fo ; my third ob- 
ject has been, what witji moit men is the firft ; the 
honour itfelf. 

Xerxes, enjoying .to the full every advantage, and every 
gift of fortune, not content with his horie, his foot, 
the number of his mips, and the infinite weight of his 
gold, propofed a reward to him who mould invent 21 
new pleafure. 

He was a wife man, and poffefled of the fame authority 
and power as you are. 

Your mind was never content with the narrow path 
which nature has given us to live in ; it ever burnt 
with a love of immortality ; nor is this to be called 
your liie, which is bounded by your mortal pari, and 



THE MAKING OF LATIN, 145 

^ui dolor qui moleflia exceptants fum occcatus cupi* 
do non provide 0. , x c ^ r a ^' J 

Ut adolefcens bonus indoles praeditus fapiens fenex dc- 
le#or, fie adolefcens fenex praeceptum gaudeo qui ad* 
vertus ftudium duco. 

Fides que fapientia vefter fretus plus onus tollo quarn 

fero ego poffum ^wrtriligfl.» 
L. Suetius homo omnis ornamentum praeditus juratus 

apud tu dico multus civis Romanus ifte imperiurn 

crudeliterper vis mors fum multatus. 

Quare dignus vefter fummus honor fmgularifque judici- 
um funvipfe modice dico fi neceffe fum* 

Non ne odium dignus multus puto qui quidam motus 
aut flatus vjdeor natura lex et modus eontemno. 

Talis ingenium praeditus Lucullus adjungo etiam qui 
Themiftocles fperno difciplina- 

Cum is locus vicftoja qui memoria dignus vir accipio 
multum fum verfatus jmagis moveo quam fi quando 
is ipfe aut fa#um audio aut fcriptus aliquis lego. 

Equidem primum ut honor dignus fum maxime Temper 
laboro fecundo ut exiftimo tertium ego fum qui plc- 
rifque .primus (urn ipfe, honor. 



Xerxes refertus omnis premium donumquefoi tuna non 
equitatus non pedeftris copiae non navis multitudo non 
infinitus pondus aurum contentus praemium propono 
<mi novus irwrenio voluptas. 

Homo fapiens furn et ifte authoritas et poteftas praedi- 
tus qui tu fum. 

Tuus ifte animus nunquam hie anguftiae qui natura ego 
ad vivo do'contentus fum, femper immortalitas amor 
ikgrans nee vero hie tuus vita dicendus fum qui cor- 
pus et fpiritus contineo ille ille inquaia vita. fum tuus 
O 



i 4 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

ypur breath ; that, that I fay, Caefar, is your life, 
which will live in the memory of the lateft ages, 
which pofterity will fofter, which eternity itfelf will 
ever protect.' 

The man who knows himfelf, will believe he has within 
him fomething divine, and will, always both think arid 
act in a manner worthy of lb great a gift of the gods ; 
and when he looks into and thoroughly examines 
himfelf, he will perceive with what abilities nature 
has fumifhed him to come into life, and what means 
are in his porTerTion to obtain and procure wffdom... 

He fays that that man alone .in this Hate is worthy j of 
this command. 

He feemed to be ferious without arrogance, and diffident 
'without indolence. 

You ought to love me, not my fortune, if we are to be 
! true friends. 

This city was formerly {o flrong and powerful, that it 
could fupport the negligence of the fenate, or even 
the injuries of its citizens ; now it cannot. , 

Thofe who deiire the valuable applaufe of good men, 
which alone can be called true glory, ought to .en* 
deayour after eafe and pleafure for others, not' for 
themlelves. j. : 

No one defpifes, or hates, or avoids, pleafure itfelf, be* 
cauie it is pleafure, but becaufe great pains attend 
thofe who cannot follow pleafure with reaibn. 

In children, as in a glafs, nature is reflected. How ear- 
ner! are their difputes.with each other ! how are they 
tranfported with joy, when they are victorious ! how 
are they afhamed to be conquered, J how unwilling are 
they to be blamed! how-eager are they to be praifed ! 
what pains will they not take tG be at the head^ of 
their equals ! how well -they remember thofe who ufe 
them kindly ! how defirous are they of returning a 
. favour! and thefe feelings appear the - -ftrongeft in 
thofe of the beft difpofitions. 

The power of conference is great. 

He indeed is a friend, who is as another felf. 

The Whale fubjecti fcerrfin a manner to have been Hif- 
cuffed, A 



THE MAKING OF. LATIN. fctff 

Csefar qui vigeo memoria feculum omnis qui pgrffteri- 
tas al^p qui ipfe «ternitas femper tueor. <y ii> 

Qui- fui ipfe nofco aliquis fui habeo fentio diyinus tan- 
>iU fidJ tufque man us deus femper dignu's aliquis et facio et 
fentio et cum fui ipfe perfpicio totufque tento intel- 
ligo quemadmodum a natura fubornatus in vita ve- 
nio quant ufq i:e inltrumentum habeo ad obtinendum 
aJipifcendumque fapientia» ^ 

Hie unus fum in hie ci vitas dignum hie imperium di- 

cit. 
Sine arrogantia gravis fum videor et fine fegnities vere- 

cundus. 
Egd ipfe amo oportet non meus fi verus amicus fum. 

Sum quondam ita firmus hie civitas et valens ut negli- 

gentia fenatus vel etiam injuria civis fero poflum jam 

non poilum. 
Qui bonus fama bonus qui folus vere gloria nominor 

poffum expeto alius otium qusero debeo et voluptas 

non fui. 

Nemo ipfe voluptas quia voluptas fum afpernor aut odi 
aut fugio fed quia confequor magnus dolor is qui ra- 
tio voluptas iequor nefcio, 
.In puer ut in fpeculum natura cenio.qnantus ftudiuiu 
decertans fum ut ille effero lsetitia cum vinco ut pu- 
det viftus ut fui accufo nolo quam cupio laudo qui 
ille labor non perfcro ut equalis princepsfum qui me- 
moria fum in hie bene/t^merens qui referendus gra- 
tia cupiditas atque is in optimus quifque indoles max- 
ime /atque puret. a/i/.&re * 



Magnu^.yis fum^onfeientia. 

Is fum amicus quidem qui tanquam alter idem. 

"lotus fere quseftio traclo videor. 



14« AN INTRODUCTION TO' 

Cluentius, the father of this perfon, was generally £on*- 
fidered as the principal man, not only of the city to 
which he belonged, but alfo of the neighbouring coun- 
try, for his virtue, reputation, and rank. 

While Archimedes attentively drew fome figures on tht 
duft, he did not perceive that his country was taken. 

Let war be fo entered upon that nothing elfe but peace 
may feem to be fought for. 

I will not only fay in this place» where it is very eafy to 
be faid, but even in the fenate, that I will be a popu- 
lar conful. 

Is there any thing, my Cicero, which 1 wiflx more than 
to have you a complete fcholar ? 

True wifdom and greatnefs of mind deem that honour- 
able which is founded on action, not on fame, and had 
rather be than appear great* 

Indeed I am very happy that I am one on whom, when 
you wifh to do it, you can throw no reproach but 
what equally falls' on the greateft part of the citizens. 

I very much defire to know from you, why thofe who 
came out of the municipal towns feem to you to be 
ftrangers. 

As a field, though fertile, cannot be fruitful without 
culture, fo cannot the mind without learning ; for, in 
both cafes, the one without the other is infufEcient ; 
but the culture of the mind is philofophy. 

All good men refpect equity and juftice on their own 
account; hot is it confident with the character of a 
good man to love that whicn is not lovely in itfelf. 

It is the duty of a young man to revere his feniors, and 
to felecl the bed and mod efteemed of them, on whofe 
advice and authority he may depend ; for the inexpe- 
rience of early youth fhould be fixed and governed by 
the experience of age. 

His induftry was various, his labour great* 

To determine what a wife man is, feems the £art of even 
a very wife man. 

It is the duty of a good conful not only to fee what is 
doing, but alfo to forefee what may happen. 

It is the bufmefs of a keen difputant, to difcern not only 
what every one may fay, but what it is poffible for 
him to fay» 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 149 

Cluentius habeor pater hie homo non folum municipium • 

ex qui fum led etiam regio ille et vicinitas virtus erif- ^<xcj 

timatio nobilitas facile princeps. 

Dum Archimedes in pulvis qnidam defcribo attentus nc 

patria quidem captus fum ientio. 
Beilum ita fufcipid ut nihil alius nifi pax quaefitus vidc- 

or. 
Ego non folum hie in locus dico ubi fum in dico facilis 

fed in ipfe fenatus popularis ego fum confuL 

An fum meus Cicero qui ego malo quam tu doclus 

fum ? 
Verus autem et Fapieris animus magnitudo honeflus ilia 

qui in factum pom non in gloria judico princepfque 

fui fum malo quam vide or.. 
Equidem vehementer laet'or is fum ego in qui tu cum 

cupio nullus centum elia jacio poffum qui non ad 

magnus pars civis convenio. 
Scio ex tu pervolo quamobrem qui ex municipium venio 

peregrinus tu. fum videor» ( 

Ut ager quam vis fertilis fine cultura frucluofus fum* 
non poifum lie fine doctrina animus ita fum uterque 
res unus line alter debilis cultura autem animus phi- 
loibphia fum. 

Omnis vir bonus fpfi equitates et jus ipfe amo nee fum-e 
vir bonus diiigo qui per fui non fum diligendus. 

Sum adolefcens in aj ores natu vereorex hie que eligo bo- 
nus et probatus qui confilium atque authoritas nitor 
MtoiJ imieiis enim setas infeitia feneX conftkuendus^et re- 
gendus prudentia fum. ^ ' •*' 

Multiis induftria et magnus labor fum. 

Statuo quis fum fapiens vel maxime videor fum fapiens. 

Sum bonus conful non folum video quis ago verum 

etiam pro video quis futurus fum. 
Acute difputans ille fum non quis quifque dico fed quis 

tjuifque dicendus fum video. 
O 2 



i;o AN INTRODUCTION TO 

It is the criterion of a complete orator, to fcem a com- 
plete orator to the people. 

It is not the character of a man, leaft of all of a Roman* 
to hefitate to give to his country that life which he 
owes to nature. 

It is the part of a wife man to refolve beforehand to 
bear with temper whatfoever may happen to man, 
fhould it take place. 

I deny that it is his bufinefs, who makes pain the ftan- 
dard of the greatefl evil, ever to make mention of vh> 
tue. 

It is becoming your wifdom and greatnefs of mind to 
regard all your honour and dignity as founded oa 
your virtue. _ 

It particularly belongs to the wifdom of the fenate, to 
exprefs a grateful fenfe of their valour who facrificed 
their lives for their country. 

It is a mark of a firm mind, and great constancy, fo to 
hear thole things which feem difpleafmg, as in nothing 
to depart from the ftate of nature, and th* dignity of 
a wile man. 

It is agreed upon by al 1 men,, as well learned as un- 
learned, that it is the part of brave, magnanimous and 
patient men, to fubmit to pain with moderation. 

It is the character of a great genius, to penetrate into 
futurity by .reflection, and fomething beforehand to 
form a judgment of what may happen on either fide, 
and what is to be done when the event takes place ; and . 
never to act .fo as to have occanon to fay, I could not 
have thought it. 

No one, C<eiar, has fuch a flow of genius, fuch ftrengtlv 
fuch power of language, as can, I fay not illuftrate, 
but relate, your actions. 
There is nothing fo much the mark of a narrow and 
little mind, as to love money ; nothing is more gene- 
rous 'and magnificent than to defpife it if you have it 
.nor, and if you have it, to bellow it in beneficence and 
libefaifty. 
As it is to be fuppofed that Athens and Lacedaemon 
were built for the Athenians and Lacedaemonians, 
and all the things which are in thofe cities are rightly 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 151 

Is ipfe fum fummus orator fummus orator populus vi- 

deor. 
Non fum vir parveque Romanus dubito is fpiritus qui 

natura dcbeo patria reddo* / '/i." 

Sum iapiens quifquis homo accidb pofTiim is prxmcdi- 
tor fcrendus modice furm 

Nego is fum qui dolor fummus malus metior mentio 
tacio virtus. 

Tuus fapientia magnitudoque animus fum omnis am- 
plitude et dignitas tuus in virtus tuus- pofitus cxilli- 
mo. 

Proprius fenatus fapiens fdm gratus is virtus memcria 
profequor qui pro- patria vita prof undo. 

Is qui video acerbus ita fero ut nihil a ftatus natura dif- 
cedo nihil a dignitas iapiens rohuilus animus ium 
magnufque conftautia^. 

Inter omnis hoc confto nee doclus homo folum fed 
etiam indoclus vir fum fortiset magnanimus et patieas 
toleranter dolor pat#ioi\ 

Ingenium . magnus* jfum -prceeipio. cogitatio futnrus- et 
aliquanto ante cenftttuo quis accido poffum in uter- 
que pars, et quis ago cum quis evenio.nec committc 
aliquis ut aliquando dioendus fum nonputo. . 

Nullus tantus fum mimen ingenium nullus dico ant 
fcribo tantus vis- tantus copia, qui non, dico exorno 
f^d enarro Caefar res tuus» gero potfurru &i> ivro tn#& 

Nih^l fum tarn anguftus animus tamque parvus quam 
amo divitias nihil honeilus magnificufque quam pc- 
cunia contemno fi non habeo fi habeo, ad bencficen- 
tia liberalitafque confero. 

Ut Athene et Lacedsemon Athenienfis Lacedaemo- 
niufque caufa putandus fum condo omnis que qui 
fum in hie urbs is populus recte fum dico fie qukuiv» 



Igf 'AN INTRODUCTION TO 

faid to belong to thofe inhabitants, fo it is to be fup- 
poied, that whatfoever things there are in the whole 
world belong to men. 

Common underflanding makes things known to us, and 
that has informed our minds, that the honourable is 
founded in virtue, the fhameful in vice ;. and to think 
thefe things owing to fancy, and not to nature, is the 
character of the truly mad ; for what is called the vir- 
tue of a, tree, or a horfe, though we there make an 
improper ufe of the word, depends not on fancy, but 
nature ; and if it is fo, the honourable and the fiiame- 
1 \il are to be determined by nature. 

As to your inviting me back to my ancient mode of life* 
it was indeed once my duty to take the lead in public 
affairs, which I did ; but then there was where I could 
repofe myfelf, but now I plainly cannot fubmit to fuch 
a courfe of living, or fuch a life £ nor in this particular 
do I think it my bufinefi to attend to other men's 
opinions of me ; my own confeience is of more value 
to me than the talk of all mankind. 

How highly do you fuppcfe I value what is wrote in 
your letter ? 

If I knew what you valued this at, I could know what 
pains I ought to take about it. 

The cemmen people eilimate few tilings according to 
their real value, many according *to opinion. 

Which fliall we value meft, the money which Pyrrhus 
offered Fabricius, or the felf-command of Fabricius, 
who refufed it ? 

Who then can doubt ( if efvery one is to be looked upon 
as richeft, who pofTefTes what is of molt value) that 
riches arife from virtue, fmce no poffeilion, no weight 
of money, is to be eileemed of more value than virtue ? 

They valued the Tufculan villa at five hundred thou- 
fand feiterces, the Formian eirate at two hundred and 
fifty thoufand. 

There was one Rubrius his companion ; he informed 
him that there was a daughter of Philodamus, wiio 
lived with her father becaufe foe was unmarried, who 
was eiteemed a woman of fmgular beauty, but of the 
higheft honour and character. 






THE MAKING OF LATIN. 153 

que fum in omnis mundus homo putandus furn* 



Communis iritelligeritia ego notus res errlcio ifque in 
animus notter incoho^ut honeftus in virtus pono in 
vitium turpis hie autem in opinio exiftimo non in 
natura pofitus vere demens fum nam nee arbor nee 
equus virtus qui dico in qui abutor nomen in opinio 
imo fed in natura quod ii ita fum honeftus quoque 
et turpis natura dijudicandus fum, 



Qui ego ad metis confuetudo revoco fum mens quidem 
jampridem res-publica rego qui facio fed interea fum 
ubi acquiefco nunc plane nee ego viclus nee vita 
ille colo poifum nee in is res quis alius videor ego 
puto curandus ego meus confeientia plus fum quu-m 
omnis fermo. 



Quantus ille ego eftirrro puto qui fum js/tuus literafe 

fcriptus. 
Hoc fi quantus tu eftimo fcio turn quis ego elaborandus 

fum fcio poffum. 
Vulgus ex Veritas pattci ex opinio multus xftimo* 

Utrum plus asftimo pecunia Pyrrhus qui Fabricius do an 
eontinentia Fabricius qui ille pecunia repudio. 

Quis igitur (fequidem ut quifque qui plurimus fum 
poffideo ita ditiffimus habendus fum) dubito quin in 
virtus divitias pono quoniam nullus pofieflio nullus 

* vis aurum plus quam virtus osilimandus fum. 

Tufculanus villa quingenti millia, Formianus feitertium 
ducenti quinquaginta millia aeftimo. 

Sum comes is Rubrius quidam, is ad is defero Philoda- 
mus fum filia qui cum pater habito propterea quod 
vir non habeo mulier eximius pulchritud'o l\d is fum- 
mus integritas pudiciaque asftimo. 



rj 4 " AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Pofthumus, concerning whom the fenate particularly' 
came to a refolution that he mould directly go into- 
Sicily and fucceed Furfanus, refutes to go without 
Cato, and rates his own power and influence in the fe- 
nate very high. 

If a freedman of Lentulus or Gellius had caufed any 
one to be condemned for theft, that perfon would 
have loft all his reputation; nor would ever have re- 
covered any part of his character j but the men whom 1 
Gellius and Lentulus themfelves, both cenfors, and of 
the higheft estimation and wifdomj have noted for 
theft and bribery, not only appear again iir the fenate, 
but are acquitted in court of the.fe very crimes. 

You blame me without reafon about fending the letters, 
for Pomponia never informed me who I mould deli- 
ver them to s and befides, I did nouhappen to have 
any one going to Epirus, nor did I know then that 
you were at Athens. 

Caelius would never have been fo mad as to accufe an- 
other of bribery, if he had difgraced himfelfwith that 
crime to fuch an immenfe degree. 

Though you had ungratefully and impioufly difclaimed 

the name of friendfhip, yet you might have conducted 

your enmity as is ufual with mankind, not purfued 

him with fictious accufations, not aimed at his life, 

*mot charged him with capital crimes. 

Nothing more conduces to the fafety of the ftate, than 

' that thofe who accufe others mould not be in lefs fear 
for their lives and fortunes, than thofe who are ac- 
cufed fear for both. 

We pity thofe more who requeft not . our companion, 
than thofe who ftrongly folic it it. 

No one, Dolabella, can now pity either you or your 
children, whom you have left in want and folitude. 

It is peculiar to folly to difcern the faults of others, and* 

to forget her own. 
If you pay no credit to Gabinius's defence, do you for» 

get your own accufation 1 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 155 

Fofthumus de qui nominatirn fenatus decerno ut flatim 
in Sicilia eo Furfanufque fuccedo nego fui eo fine Ca- 
to et fuus in fcnatus opera auftoritafque magnus selti- 

mo, 

Si quis Lentulusaut Gellius libertus furtum condemno 
is omnes ornamentum omt/Ius nunquam ullus honef- 
tas fuus pars recupero qui artitem ipfe Gellius et Len- 
tulus duo Cenfor clariflimus vir fapienfque homo fur- 
tum et captus pecunia nomen noto is non modo in 
fenatus redio fed etiam iille pfe res judicium abfolvor. 



De litterae miffio fine caufa abs turccufo nunquam enim 
a Pomponia nofter certus fum faclus fum qui litterae 
de pofTum porro autem neque ego accidd ut habeo 
qui in Epirus proficifcor neque dum tu Athene fum 
audio. 

Nunquam tarn (Melius aniens fum ut il fui ifle infinitus 
ambitus commaculo ambitus alter accufo. 

Quamvis ingrate et impie neceflitudo nomen repudio 
tamen inimicitia homo mos gero po/Tum non fingo 
crimen in fector non expeto vita non caput arc e fib. 



Nullus falus.res-publica^magnus fum quam is qui alter 
accufo non minus de caput ac fortuna quam ille qui 
accufo de uterque pertimeo. 

Is ego magis miferet qui nofter mifericordia non re- 

quiro quam qui ille efflagito, 
Nemo jam Dolabella neque tu neque tuus liberi qui tu 

mifer in ejeflas atque in folitudo relinquo miferior 

pofTum. 
Proprius fum iluldtia alius vitium cerno oblivifcor fuus t 

Si defenfio Gabinius fides non habeo oblivifcor ne etiam 
accufatio tuus. 



RULES 

FOR ADAPTING THE 

ENGLISH to the LATIN IDIOM. 



JTbe Engljjlj juljlaniivt may he font: times turned into a La: hi 
adjeQlve. 

, IF it is a fault to fpeak gracefully, let eloquence be 
1 ever banilhcd from the itate. 

Si vitiofum eft dicere ornate, ■ pcliitor ornnino e civitatc 
eloqucntia. 

It is not, however, faid whence this poifon came, nor 
how it was prepared ; they allcdge that it was given 
to P. Licinius, a young man of virtue and nwdyly, and 
the friend of C melius. 

8ed tamen venerium unde fuerit quemadmodum para- 
tnm fit, non dieitirr ; datum eife hoc aiunt P. Liciuio 
pvitJcnil adolefcenti et bono, Cxlii fctniliark 

V he Ej.^lyh fuljlo. fit rue is fometimii rendered into Latin ly the 
verb cr participle ; eis, 

What my efforts otfuccefi maybe, I choofe rather to leave 
to the imagination of others, than infmuute by ex- 
preffions of my own. 

In quo ego quid eniri aut qiiid efficere pofTim malo in ali- 
orum fpe relinquere, quam m oratione mca ponere. 

For when by reafon of the adjournment of the Comitia 
I found myfelf thrice chofen firft prator by all the 
centuries, it was eafy for me from thence to collect 
both what your ftntimcnts of me were, and what quali- 
fication you required in others. 

Nam cum propter dilationem comitiorum ter Praetor pri- 
mis centuriis cunelis renunciatus fum, facile intellexi, 
Quirites, et quid de mcjudicaretis et quid aliis fr*/cri* 
beretis* P 



i 5 S AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Sub/iantives may be rendered by participles in dus. 

We are next to treat of the arrangement of our words, of 
the art of numbering and meafuring our very fylla- 
bles. 

De verbis componendis et de fyllabis dinumerandis loquc- 

mur. 

There was lefs reafon, indeed, for grief as the attempt 
did not fucceed, but certainly not at all the lefs for 
punfhment. 

Minus dolendum fuit re non perfecla, fed puniendum certe 
nihilo minus. 

Schemes, plans, propofals, and other Englijh words of the 
like import, may be exprejjed in Latin by making the adjetlive 
with which they agree the neuter gender. 

All the fch ernes that have been in agitation for three years 
paft, fmce the time that Cataline and Pifo formed the 
defign of mafTacring the fenate, are at this period and 
feafon, and during thefe months, ready to break forth. 

Omnia qua per hoc trienniurn agitata funt jam ab eotem* 
pore, quo a Catalina et Pifone initum confilium fe- 
natus intcrficiendi, fcitis cP[q in hos dies in hos menfes 
in hoc tempus erumpunt. 

The fulflaniive bufinefs may be expreffed in Latin by making 
the 'verb following the gerund in dum with the verb fum ; 
as, 

Were it my bufinefs to recount here the exploits of our ar- 
my and .general, 1 might give a detail of many very 
confiderable engagements ; but that is not the point 
at prefent. 

Ac fi nihil nunc de rebus geftis effet noftri exercitus im- 
peratorifque dicendum, plurima et maxima praelia com- 
memorare pofium ; fed non id agimus. 

The Englijh fubflantive mark, fgnifying token or proof may 
be rendered into Latin proprius, in the neuter gender, with 
a genitive cafe. 



f HE MAKING OF LATIN. 159 

It was of old, it was, I fay, the diflinguifhing mark of the 
Roman people, to make war upon diftant countries, and 
employ the forces of the empire, not in defence of 
their own habitations, but to guard the properties of 
their allies. 

jftfcit hoc -quondam fuit hoc ptoprium populi Romany longe 
domo bellare et propugnaculis imperii feciorum for- 
fjnas noil fua tefta cbfendere. 

The fulft arrive neceffity may be very properly rendered by 
waking the Englifb Infinitive mood or participle which fol- 
lows it by the Latin participle in dus, and the nominalrj: 
cafe the dative, and the accufative the nominative ; as, 

If, therefore, / am under a neceffty of arraigning any one, I 
dill feem to act agreeably to my former characcer, 
without deviating from the patronage and dzieatc of 
mankind. 

Q^uamobrem fi fh'tki arms efl accufandus, propemodum ma- 
nere in mtututo meo videar, et non omnino a defen- 
dendis hominibus fublevandis que difcedere. 

The Englifh adjeilive may be fometimes rendered into Latin by 
a fulflaniive, and the word with which it agrees be made 
the genitive cafe ; as, 

Ancient friendfhip, the dignity of the man, common hu- 
manity, and my conftant practice through life, jointly 
called upon me to defend Rabinjus. 

Am\ciii<2 vetuflas, dignitas hominis, mes vitas perpetua con- 
fuetudo, ad Rabinium defendendum eft adhortata. 

A good voice, though a deferable accomplifhment, it is 
not in our power to acquire ; but to exercife and im- 
prove it is certainly in the power of every one. 

Ac vocis quidem bonitas optanda eft ; non eft enim in no- 
bis, fed tractatio atque ufus in nobis. 

Adjeclives may he fometimes rendered by verbs* 

But, left it mould appear ftrange, that, in a legal pro- 
ceeding, and a public caufe, before an excellent prse- 
tor, the moft impartial judges, and fo crowded au af- 



i6o Aft INTRODUCTION Ta 

fembly, I lay afide the ufual ftyle of trials, and intrd? 
duce one very different from the bar, I mult beg to 
be indulged in this liberty. 
Sed ne cui vefrrum mirum eife videatur, me in queftione 
legitima et in judicio publico, cum res agatur apud 
prastorem populi Romani, lectiifimum virum, et apud* 
ieveriffimos judices tanto conventu hominum ac fre- 
quentia hoc uti genere dicendi, quod non modo a con- 
fuetudine judiciorum verum a forenfi fennone abhar* 
/cat, quaefo a vobis,- ut mihi dads hanc veniam. 

There are two arts capable of placing men in the higher! 

degree of digniry — that of a good general, and that 

of a good orator. 
Duacfunt artes, quae poffunt locare homines in amplifiimo 

gradu dignitatis — una irnperatoris altera oratovis boni. 

The adjeftive able, with the infinitive mood after it, may be 
rendered into Latin by the participle in dus. 

For, in my opinion at leaft, there are three things which 
an orator Jhonld be able to effeS— to inform his hearers, 
to pleafe them, and to move their paiiions. 

Tria funt enim, ut quiderri egd fentio, quae ftnt efficienda 
docendo — ut doceatur is, apud quern dicetur, ut de- 
lectatur, ut moveatur vehementius< 

7 he adjeclive ufual may be cxprf/ed in Latin by eft, and the 
genitive cafe ofconfuetudo after it ; as, 

Al chough it is not ufual with me, Romans, in the be- 
ginning of my pleading, to give an account of the 
reafons that induce me to undertake the defence of 
my client. 

EtiVQuirites, non efl me* confuetudinis initio dicendi ratio- 
ned reddere qua de caufa quemque defendam. 

The Engli/h adjeclive equal, with the prepofition to, may be 
rendered into Latin by tantus and quantus, in the manner 
following ; as, 

And if that folcmn addrefs in the comitia, confecrated 
by confular aufpices, has in it a force and efficacy 
equal to the dignity of tlfc«ftjte,'I muft likewife be un- 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 161 

derftood to have prayed that the fame might have 
been a happy, jovial and profperous event to thole 
perfons, who in an aiTembly where I prefided were 
chofen into the confulfhip. 
Quod fi ilia folennis comitiorum precatio, confularibus 
aufpiciis confecrata, tan/am habet in fe vim et religio- 
nem quantam rcipublicae dignitas pertulit, idem ego 
fum precatus ut eis quoque hominibus quibus hie con- 
fulatus me rogante datus efiat ea res fault e feliciter 
pro r pereque eveniret. 

Worth, when a niun adjjclive, miy be rendered by inflar go- 
virniag a genitive cafs. 

That one day *io&t tujrth an immortality to me, the day 
of my return to my country ; when I faw the fenate 
and die whole Roman people come forth to meet me ; 
the day of my return to my country, when Rome 
hcvxcii fecraed to ipring from her foundations to meet 
her deliverer. . 

Unas ille dies mini qui Aim immortalitatis inflar fecit, quo 
in palriam redii cum fenatum egreflum vidi, popu- 
lurnque Romanum univerfum ; cum mihi ipfi Roma 
prope convulfa iedibus fuis ad complectandum con- 
fervatorem fuum progredi vifa eft. 

AdjtBroes ?nay fometimes he rendered by adverbs. 

Our orator then mould be qualified to make a juft de- 
finition, though not in fuch a clofe and contracted 
form as in the- critical debates of the academy. 

Erit igitur hsec facukas in eo quern volumus effe elo- 
cuentem, ut definire rem poflit, neque id faciat tarn 
f+ejje et angufle quam in illis eniditiHimis difputati- 
onibus fieri folet. 

But firfk I will a!k her herfelf whether fhe would have 
me deal with her in a fevere, fo/emn, old-fajhioned man- 
ner, or in ay?//, gentle and courteous one. 

Sed tamen ex ipfa quoeram prius, utrum me fecum fivcre 
et graviter et prlfce agere malit, an remifle et levitcr et 



P 2 



1 62 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

The pronoun perfonal may be rendered by the pronoun fub- 
jianiive* 

Though Coefar had never been my friend, but had al- 
ways ihewn a difmclination to me ; though he had 
flighted my friendfhip, and acted the part of an im- 
placable enemy towards me ; yet, after the great 
things he has done, and ftill continues to do, I could 
not help loving him. 

Si mihi nunquam amicus Caefar fuiifet fed femper i rat us, 
fi afpernaretur amicitiam meam feque mihi implaca- 
bilem inexplicabilemque praberet, tamen ei cum tantas 
res geiflffet gereretque quotidie,. non amicus eiie non 
polfem. 

He and fhe may fometlmes be rendered by qui and quae. 

Ennius 1 allow was a more fmifhed writer, but if he had 
really undervalued the other, as he pretends to do, 
he would fcarcely have omitted fuch a bloody war as 
the fipft Punic, when he attempted profeffedly to de- 
scribe all the wars ef the republic. 

Sit Ennius fane ut eft certe perfection, qui fi ilium, ut fi- 
mulat, contemneret,- non omnia bella perfequens pri- 
mum ilium Punic um acerrimum bellum reliquiffet. 

Sach was the manner in which Jhe received me, that not 
only men and women, of al) ranks, ages and condi- 
tions, of every fortune, and of every place, but even 
the walls, the dwellings and the temples of the city, . 
feemed to wear a face of joy. 

* Qua me ita accepit, ut non modo omnium generum, 
setatum, ordinum,omnes viri et mulieres omnis fortu- 
nar ac loci, fed etiam mcenia ipfa viderentur et: tecla 
urbis ac templa lastari. 

The demorjlraiive pronoun this may be rendered by the rela- 
tive pronoun qui. 

If no fudden violence had cut off this man, in what 
manner would he, when arrived at the confular dig- 
nity, have oppofed the fury of his coufm ? 

g>uem quidem virum, fi nulla vis repentino fceleris fufbv 

* Roma* 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 163 

lifTet, quonam modo illc furexiti fratxi fuo patrueli 
confularis rciiitiifet ? 

The relative who may be fometimes omitted \ the verb active 
which follows it being made a participle pajjive to agree with 
its accufative cafe 9 which mujl be turned into an ablative 
abfolute. 

But though you blame them for having been ambitious- 
of laurels, when they had conducted no wars at all, 
or very inconfiderable ones, yet you, who had fubdued 
fuch powerful nations, and performed fuch- mighty ex- 
ploits, ought not to have flighted the fruit of your 
toils, the rewards of your dangers, the badges of your 
valour. 

Quod fi reprehendis quod cupidi laureae fuerint, cum 
bella aut parva aut nulla geffiffent, tu, taniis nationibus 
fubjeclis, tantis rebus geftis, minime fru&us laborum tu- 
orum praemia periculorum virtutis infignia contem- 
nere debuifti. 

The relative who and the verb is following it may be both left 
out in Latin, and the fubflantive or adjective which follows 
may be made, in the fame cafe with the antecedent to the rela- 
tive, 

I pardon Atratinus, who is a young man of great humanity 

and virtue. 
Ego Atratino human'iffimo at que optima adcltfceuti agnofco. 

The relative who may be exprefpd in Latin by changing the 
verb which it goes before into a participle, which muft agree 
in cafe with its antecedent. 

And firft I. will vindicate my prefent behaviour to Cato, 
who governs his life by the unerring ftandard of rea- 
fon, and diligently weighs the motive of every duty. 

Et primum Catoni vitam ad certam rationis normam 
dirigenti et diligentiilime perpendenti momenta officio- 
rum omnium. 

1 ana only aiming at the fatisfaction of an intimate 
friend, and a worthy man, who defres of me nothing 
but what is jufl and honourable.. 



1 64 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Amiciflimo et praeftantiftimo viro et recla et honefta pe- 
tenii fatisfacere volui/Tem. 

The verb aclive is very often rendered into Latin by the verb 
pajjlve, making the nominative cafe the ablative, and the accu- 
jafive caf the nominative. 

Tou laughed not long ago at M. Pifo y s pajfton for a triumph, 
a paftion you laid very different from what you were 
animated with ; but although Pifo carried on a con- 
siderable war, as you have told us, yet he did not 
think that honour contemptible. 

Irrlfa efi a te paulo ante M. Pifonis n//iJ;to -triumph and i, a 
qua te longe dixiiri abhorrere, qui etiamfi minus mag- 
num bellum geiTeret, ut abs te dicnim eft, tamen iftum 
honorem contemnendum non putavit. 

The very firft villainies you were guilty of upon your 
arrival, I marked, when, after having received a ium 
of money from the inhabitants of Dyrrachium for 
murdering Plator, the perfon who entertained you, 
you demolifhed the houfe of the man whofe blood - 
you had fet to fale. 

Notata a nobis funi et prima ilia fcclera in adventu, cum 
accepta pecunia a Dyrrachinis ob necem hofpitis tui< 
Platoris ejus dcmum evertifti cujus fanguinem addix- 
cras. 

Is concerned may be rendered by making the nominative cafe 
which precedes it the genitive with the verb eft. 

But your ivifJom, my lords, is concerned, not to lofe fight: 
of the accufed» nor when the profecutor has given 
an cdgQ to your fe verity and gravity again ft things, 
againit vices, againft immoralities, againft the times, 
to point it againft a man, againft one who is accufed 
before you, and who is brought under an unjuft o- 
dium, not for any perfcnal crime, but for the vices 
of the multitude. 

Sed vefira fapientia efi, judices, non abduci a reonec quos 
aculcos habet feveritas gravitafque veftra, cum eos 
accufator erexerit in rem invitia in mores in tem- 
pora emitters in hominem, ctS rcum cumJsjic;**fuo 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 165 

crimine fed multorum vitio fit in quoddam odium 
injuftum vocatus. 

To be obliged to may be rendered by the participle in dus, 
and the verb cfle. 

A fubjecl which I fh all he obliged to treat of in the fc quel. 
De quo mihi deinceps vidcri ejfe dlcendunu 

'The infinitive, mood after the verb are is very often rendered 
by the participle in dus, which miift agree In gender with' 
the Engl'fh accufative y which nmjl he changed into a nomina- 
tive , and the verb eft. 

But we are to exhibit the portrait of a finimed orator, 

whofe chief excellence muft be fuppoled from his very 

name to conn ft in his elocution. 
Sed jam illius perfecti oratoris et fummse eloquentiac^'- 

cies exprimenda eft, queni hoc uno excellcre, id eft, ora- 

tione indicat nomen ipfuim 

The Englijh infinitive mood may he rendered into Latin by the 
gerund in di. 

If thefe remarks, my Brutus, appear unfuitable to the 
fubjecl, you muft throw the whole blame upon Atti- 
cus, who has infpired me with a ftrange curiofity $6 
inquire into the age of illuftrious men, and the reipee- 
tive times of their appearance. 

Hanc £1 minus apta videntur huic fermoni, Attico aillg- 
na, qui me inflammavit ftudio iliuftrium hominum 
states et tempore profeauendi. 

The English verb belongs to may be rendered in Latin by • 
the verb eft, with a genitive cafe ; as, 

But the merit of this belongs to our anceftors, who, upon 
the expuliion of the kings, would iuffer no traces of 
royal cruelty to remain among a free people. 

Sed ifta laus efl major mn nqflrum, qui, expulfis regibus, nul- 
lum in libero populo vcftigium crudelatatis regirc re- 
linquerunt. 



i66 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

The Englijh infinitive may be rendered into Latin by the rela* 
five qui, and the potential mood ; as, 

Suppofmg, therefore, you mould have a general who 
may appear capable of defeating the forces of thofe 
two powerful kings in a pitched battle, yet, unlefs he 
is alio one that can refrain his hands, eyes and 
thoughts from the riches of our allies, from their 
wives and children, from the ornaments of their cities 
and temples, and from the gold and treafures of their 
palaces, he is by no means rit to be fent to an Aiiatie 
and regal war. 

Quare etiamfi quern habebis qui collatis fignis exercitus 
regios fuperare pofTe videatur, tamen nifi erit idem 
qui fe a pecuniis fociorum, qui ab eorum conjugibus 
ac liberis, qui ab auro gazaque regia manus oculos 
animum cohibere pcflit, non erit idoneus, qui ad bellum 
Afiaticum regiumque miitatur. 

*Thefign mould, in thefenfe of 'ought ', requires the verb follow- 
ing it to be rendered in Latin by the participle in dus ; as, 

It were to be wifhed, Romans, that this ftate fo abound- 
ed with men of courage and probity as to make it a 
• matter of difficulty to determine to whom chiefly you 
fhould entrujl the conduct of fo important and dange- 
rous a war. 

Utinam, Quirites, virorum fortium atque innocentium 
copiam tantam haberetis, ut hae'c vobis deliberatio di'f- 
flcilis effet quern nam potiuimum tantis rebus ac tan- 
to bello prafieiendum putaretis. 

We Jhonhl have cotfldered the- difficulty of the voyage be- 
fore we embarked, for now we have ventured to fet 
fail we nroft run boldly before the wind, whether we 
reach port or not. 

Ingredientibus confiderandum fuit quid agerimus ; nunc 
quidem jam quocumque feremur danda nimirum vela 
funt. 

"The Jlgn fhould is alfo fomstimes rendered by the verb fum, 






THE MAKING OF LATIN. 167 

ihe nominative cafe made the genitive, and the verb the infini- 
tive mood. 

I am of opinion, therefore, that a finifhed orator fkould 
not only poffefs the talent, which is indeed peculiar to 
himfelf, of. fpeaking copioufly aad diffuiively, but 
that he fhould alfo borrow the affiftance of its neareft 
neighbour, the art of logic. 

Effe igitur per feci e eloquentis puto non earn folam faculta- 
tem habere quas fit ejus propria fufe lateque dicendi ; 
fed etiam vicinam ejus atque finitimam dialecticcrum 
fcientiam affumere. 

The Engli/h verb ought may be exprtffedby rendering the verb 
following it into the gerund in dum, and the verb eft, mak- 
ing the nominative cafe the ablative ; and fomcihnes the par- 
ticiple in dus ; as, 

Nolr ought you to overlook the laft point I prcpofed to 
mention hi fpeaking of the nature of the war ; I mean 
what regards the fortunes of many Roman citizens, 
to which, my countrymen, your wifdom ought to pay 
a particular regard. 

At ne illud quidem vobis negligendum eft, quod mlhi ego 
propofueram cum efiem de belli genere di&urus, quo- 
rum vobis pro veftra fapientia, Quirites, habenda eft 
ratio diligenter. 

The Engli/h verb is fometimts rendered by the Latin fulftani'ive* 

Mithridates employed the interval that followed, not to 
blot out the memory of the ancient qui.rrel, but to re- 
new the war. 

Mithridates omne reliquum tempus, ncn ad ollivicr.cm 
belli, fed ad cqmparationem novi contulitu 

The verb mud may be fupplied in Latin by mahing the verb 
that fhould follow it the participle in dus, or the gerund in 
dum with eft added to it, and the nominative the ablative ; 
as, 

And because the third of glory, and paflion for fame, 
have been always flronger in you than in other peo- 



j68 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

pic, you miift wipe out the flain contracted in thelaft 
Mithridatic war, which has given fo deep and dange- 
rous a wound to the reputation of the Roman people. 
Et quoniam femper appetentes gloriae prater cseteras 
gentes atque avidi laudis fuiftis, delcnda eft vobis ilia 
macula Mithridatico bello fuperiore fufcepta, quse 
penitus jam infidat atque inveteravit in populi Ro- 
mani nomine. 

The Englfh infinitive mood is often tranfiaied by the participle 
in dus, and the -verb ium and the accufaiive cafe made the 
nominative ; as, 

.In the caufe now before you, my lords, though I have 
indeed undertaken the defence of the Sicilians, yet I 
confider myfclf as principally labouring for the Ro- 
man people, to crufh, not. a Angle oppreifof, but to ex- 
tirpate and alolijh the very name of oppreffion, which 
is what the Roman people have long defired with 
carneftnefs. 

Ego in hoc judicio mini «Siculorum caufum receptam 
populi Rcmani fufceptam eife arbitror, ut mihi non 
iinus h(>mo improbus opprhnendus fit, fed omnino omnis 
improbkas, id quod populus Romanus jam diu flagi* 
tat, extingtunda atque dekdaft. • 

Sometimes a verb is elegantly expreffed by an adjetlive ; as, 

Will you, Cheilitis, pretend that the inclinations of our 

•beft and molt faithful allies ought not to weigh with 

thofe who compofe this court ? 
Utrum, Carcili, hec dices oj)t>morum Jfideliflimorumqne 

fociorum yolu.ntatem apud hos gravepi eife non opor- 

tere. 

Our Ennius *vtu math beloved hv the elder Africanus. 
Cams fuit Africano fuperiori nofter Ennius. 

A participle, when the nominative cafe, is fometim^s rendered 
■by a verb, with a conjunction between that and the verb 
which it went before» 

When Philo, a philofopher of the fir ft name in the aca- 
demy, with many of the principal Athenians, having 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 169 

Oefrted their native home, fled to Rome from the fury 
of Mi thri dates, I immediately became his fcholar. 
Cum princeps academice Philo cum Athenienfium op- 
timatibus Mithridatico bello domo profugijfet Romam- 
que veni/fet, totum ei me tradidi. 

The Englifh participle with of before it may be rendered inti 
Latin by the correfpondent fubjlantive^ and made the genitive. 
cafe. 

For neither the Lacedeemonians, the flrft imitators of 
this way of living and talking y who at their daily meals 
recline upon a hard board ; nor the Cretans, who ne- 
ver indulge themfelves in a reclining pofture at table; 
have been more fuccefsful in the management of 
public affairs than the Romans, who divide their 
time between bufmefs and plearurc 

iMeque tamen Lacedaemonli au&ores hujus vita atque ora- 
tionis, qui quotidianis epulis in robore accumbunt, ne- 
que vero Cretes quorum nemo quiaevit unquam Cu- 
bans, melius quam Romani homines qui tempora 
voluptatis laboriique difpertiunt res-publicas fuaa 
retinuerunt. 

The. active participle may fometimes be rendered into Latin by 
the pa/five, that and the accufative cafe which it Jhould govern 
being turned into an ablative ; as y 

On this occafion, though fome of the beft and brayefl 
men in Roj^e be againfl me, yctyfettmg authority aj\ 
I think we may come at the truth by reafon and in- 
quiry. 

In haec caufa, tametfi cognofcitis aufloritates contrari- s 
fortiffimcvum .viror-um et claridimorum, tamen, omlf. 
autoritatibus, ipia re et ratione exquircre polfumus veri- 
tatem. 

Of, before an aclive participh in Englfh, may he rendered by 
the participle in dus, which miffi agree with the. noun nvh 
is in Englifh the accufative cafe after it ; as, 

A prevalent . and general perfuafion had like wife t^fe:i 
hold of the minds of thefe barbarians, that the dti: 



.j 7 p AN INTRODUCTION TO 

cf pillaging a rich and awful tcmpk had brought our ar- 
my into thofe parts. 
Erat etiam alia gravis atque vehemens opinio, quae per 
rinimos gentium barbarorum, pervaferat,^;*/ locuple- 
hjjimi et rcTiglofiJJimi derlpiendi caufa in eas oras noftrum. 
exercitum effs adductum. 

May, when It Implies right or propriety, is to be rendered by the 
participle in dus, and the nominative wade the dative. 

And here I think I may juftly congratulate my/elf, that un- 
accuftomed as I am to harangue in this manner, and 
from this place, a fubject prefents itfelf, on which it 
is impoffible not to be eloquent. 

Atque illud imprimis mihi latandum jure effe video, quod 
in hac infolita mihi, ex hoc loco, ratione dicendi cau- 
fa talis oblata eft, in qua oratio nemini deeffe poteft. 

Owing, when it follows it was, may be rendered by making the 
fidjlantlve which follows it the genitive cafe. 

Nor was it owing to his great genius and learning alone, but 
likewiie to his. amiable temper and virtuous dif- 
pofition, that the family which fir ft received him in 
jiis youth mould afford him freedom of accefs even in 
his old age. 

Sed etiam hoc non folum ingenii ac Uterarum, verum etiam 
vlrtutls fult, ut domus quae hujus adolefcentiae prima 
fuerit eadem efTet famiiiariftima fene&utis. 

7 he participle granting or allowing may be elegantly tranflat* 
ed by quod fi ; as, 

But granting that I had not fuch powerful, weighty, ur- 
gent reafons. 

Quod ft hanc caufam tarn idoneam, tarn iiiuftrem, tam 
gravem, non haberem. 

The adverb is fometlmes changed into an adjecllve. 

The fame might be faid cf Demofthenes, whole letters 
will fatlsfy us how ajlduoujly he attended the lectures 
of Plato. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 17.1- 

Quad idem de Demofthene exiilimari poteft, cujus er 
epiitolis intclligi licet <\u-am freqttens fuerit Pkitonis au- 
ditor. * 

The EngtifJj adverb after will require the participle which fol- 
lows it to be rendered by a Latin verb. 

After Budding and equipping vail fleets, levying great ar- 
mies hi all the countries whence troops could be had, 
he fent ambaiFadors from Ecbatance into Spain. 

Poileaquam quani maximas adificavii ornajfet que clafFes, 
exercitatufque permagnos quibus cunque exgentibus 
potuiiFet, comparafTet, ufque in Kifpauiam Legates 
Ecbatanis miflt. 

After, before a verb of the preterperfecl ten ft pajfive, may, in 
fame injlanccs, be exprejffed by making the ruminative cafe the 
ablative abflLile, and turning 'the verb int% a participle paf- 

M* :/ ., .. •••- 

After the genus or kind has been fujftiently "determined, we 
muft then proceed to examine into different or iubor- 
dinate parts, that our whole difcourfe may be proper- 
ly diilributed amongft them.- s ; * 

Explicato genere cujufque ret videntum eft, quae fint ejus ge- 
neris, five forma five partes, ut in eas tribuatur omnis 
onttio. 

The adverb when will fometimer require .'the nominative cafe 
following, together with its verb, to be rendered by the abla- 
tive abfolute in Latin ; as, 

Why do we noti when the gods clearly df cover their pie afure^ 
entruft this war agaihft the king to the care of the 
man who has already terminated fo many others to 
the advantage of the ftate ? 

Cur non, ducibus diis immortalibus, eidem cui caetera cum 
falute reipublicas commiifa funt, hoc quoque bellum 
regnum committimus ? 

The adverb whilft may be expreffed by rendering the nominative 
cafe, and the verb, in the fent ence to which it belongs^ by thz 
ablative abfolute j as } 



*7* AN INTROD UCTION TO 

They requefted and conjured me not to difregard their 
fuplications, fmce, whilft I was /aft, they ought to be- 
come fuppliants to no one. 

Rogare et orare ne illos fupplices afpernarer quos, me 
incolum'ts nemini fupplices efle oporteret. 

As, when itfignifies with refpect to, may be exprejfed by mak- 
ing the word which follows it of the genitive cafe, governed 
of the leading fubflantive, 

As to thefophifts whom I have already mentioned, the re- 
femblarice ought to be more accurately diitinguiihed, 
for they induftrioufly purfue the fame flowers which 
are ufed by the orator in the forum. 

Sophiflarum, de quibus fupra dixi, magis diftinguenda 
fimilitudo videtur, qui omnes eodem volunt ftores, 
adhibet orator in caufis, perfequi. 

The Englifh ad-verb not, with an imperative mood, may be ren- 
dered into Latin by the imperative mood of nolo, making the 
Englifh imperative the Latin infinitive ; as, 

Therefore, Cato, cenfure not too feverely thefe cuftoms of 
our ancefcors, which our prefent flourifhing condition, 
and the long continuance of our empire, fufficiently 
juftify. 

Quare noli, Cato, majorum inflituta quae res ipfa publi- 
ca, quse diuturnitas imperii comprobat nimium fevera 
rati one reprehendere. 

The conjunclion but may be rendered by the prepofiticn praeter. 

Virtue defires no other reward for her toils and dangers, 

but praife and glory. 
Nullum enim virtus aliam mercedem laborum periculo- ^1 

rumque d e fide rat prater hanc laudis et glories. 

The conjunclion as, before an infinitive mood, may be rendered 
into Latin by the relative qui, making the verb following the 
indicative mood ; as, 

Suffice it in few words to fay, that no man was ever yet 
fo prefumptuous as ever filently to conceive a wifh, that 
the immortal gods would crown him with io manr 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 173 

and diftinguifhing proofs of their favour, as they have 
bcftowed upon Pompey. 
Hoc breviffime dicam, neminem unquam tam impuden- 
tem fuiife, qui a dlis immortalibus tot et tantas res ta- 
citus auderct cptare, quot et quantas dii immortales ad 
Pompeium detulerunt. 

The conjunction that, before a nominative cafe and a verb, is 
rendered into Latin by turning the nominative cafe into the 
accufaiive, and the verb into an infinitive- moody or tlfe into- 
the participle in das* . 

Eor a number of citizens fuftaining at that time greac 
lolfes in Afia, we know that public credit was at a fland 
at Rome, from a general ftoppage of payment. 

Nam. x urn cum in Alia res magnas permulti amiferunt> 
icimus Romas folutione impedttajfr&w concidiffe. 

But this is not always done, for that is fomdimes rendered by 
ut, with a potential mood» 

This we learn from experience to be frequently the cafe, 
that the eminent diftrefies of princes, by the compaf- 
fion they are apt to excite, raife powerful confedera- 
cies in their favour, efpecially of fuch as are either 
monarchs themfelves, or live in fubjecHon to monar- 
. chy, becaufe to - them the name of royalty founds vene- 
rable. • 

Hoc jam fere fie fieri folere accepimus, ut regum afRictae 
fortunae facile multorum opes allkiant ad mifericordi- 
am, maximeque eorum qui aut reges iiint aut vivunt • 
in regno quod regale, iis nomen magnum et fan^him 
effe videatur. 

When a fenlence begins with if, the conjunction is often left out 
in Latin, the nominative cafe made the ablative alfolute, and 
the verb a participle to agree with it ; as. 

He fhall have iif* reafon to think, if I conducl this caufe^ ■ 
that this bench can be corrupted without great- peril 
to many. 

Nihilerit quod, me agent?, arbitretur judicium fine magno 
multorum periculo poffe corrumpj,* 

CL 2 



174 AN INTRODUCTION T© 

To engage or perfuade may be rendered by ut with a poten- 
tial mood. 
And to engage you more readily to this, my lords, I will 

lay open the very fecrets of my heart before you, and 

fully confefs my paffion for glory, which, though too 

keen, perhaps, is however virtuous. 
Atque ut id Y\hzxiX.ms faciatis ]am me vobis judices indi- 

cabo ut de meo quodam amore glorias, nimis acri for- 

tafTe, veruntamen honefte indicabo. 

*The prepofition without may be exprcffed by making the word 
which it governs the ablative cafe abfolute. 

Such indeed was my conduct during the whole of my* 
confulfhip, that I did nothing without the advice of 
the fenate, without the approbation of the Roman people. 

Atque ita eft a me confulatus, peractus ut nihil fine con- 
cilio fenatus, non approbante pcpulo Romanum egerim. 

The prepofition (or rather the participle) during may be ex- 
prffcd by rendering the fubjlantive following in the ablative, 
ccfi ahfolute. 

If it fhould happen, my lords, that there is any one pre- 
fent who is unacquainted with our laws, our judicial. 
proceedings, and the forms of our courts, it mull cer- 
tainly be matter of furprife to fuch a perfon, what 
can render this caufe of fo very heinous a nature, 
that it alone fhould be tried on the feftival days, dur- 
ing the celebration of the f ports , and a total fufpenfion of 
bufmefs in the forum. 

Si quis, judices, forte nunc adfit ignarus legum, judicio- 
rum, confuetudinis noftra?, miretur, profedto quae fit 
tanta atrocitas hujus caufx quod, diebus fe/iis, ludifque 
publicis, omnibus negotiis forenfibus intermulis, u- 
num hoc judicium exerceretur. 

£uljlantives> with the prepofttions with or by before them, may 
be rendered into adverbs* 

He lived in this city as long as he could bfave lived in. it 

with honour and reputation, 
Vixit tarn dia quam licult in civitate bene ha'eov.c vivers* 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. i^ 

Under, when it means commanded by, may be rendered by the 
participle imperans, which with its fubflantivc mufl be made 
the ablative cafe abfolute. 

Under Lucullus, the Roman people penetrated into Pon- 
tus, impregnable till then, by means of its fituation 
and the arms of its monarchs ; under him too the Ro- 
mans, with no very confiderable force, routed the 
numberlefs troops of the Armenians- 

Populus enim Romanus, Lusullo imperante, Pontum et re- 
giis quondam opibus et ipfa natura, regionis vallatum 
populi Romani exercitus eodem duce non maxima 
manu innumerabiles Armeniorem copias fudit. 

The EngTifh prepofition without, before a participle, may be 
rendered in Latin by turning the participle into a verb, and 
prefixing a negative participle to it ; as, 

The provinces of Greece and beyond the Hellefpont, 
unable to repel the danger, look to you for aid, but 
without daring or thinking it fafe to name the particular 
general, becaufe you had already put another into 
that commiffion. 

Civitas autem omnes cuncta Afia atque Grarcia, veftrum 
auxilium expeclare, propter periculi magnitudinem 
coguntur irrtperatorem a vobis, certum depofcere cum 
praefertim vos alium miferitis, neque audent neque fe id 
facere furnmo fine periculo poffe arbitrantur. 

The prepofition without may be rendered into Latin by the par* 
ticiple amifTus being made the ablative cafe, together with the 
'word which it governs ; as, 

It regards the fureft and the faireft revenues of the com- 
monwealth, without which we can neither fupport peace 
with dignity, nor furnifli the necefTary expenfes dur- 
ing war. 

Aguntur certitlima populi Romani vecligalia et maxima 
quibus amiffu et pads ornamenta et fubiidia belli requi- 
ritis. 

The prepofition from, before a participle, may be rendered by 
quo minus, and the participle be made a verb of the potential 
mood ; as, 



p6 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

IF the dlfpute regards the impeachment, you mud leave 
that to thofe who are deterred by no crimes of their 
own fro,n Ljying open the crimes of another. 

Si de accufatione dicimus, concedas oportet iis qui nullo 
fuo peccato impediuntur, quo minus altevius peccata de- 
mon ft rare poffunt* 

When with comes before a participle of the pr<zterperfe6t tenfe y it 
<w'iU require that participle to be turned into an injmitive 
mood ; as y , 

Verres is charged it> ith having, for- three years, plundered 

the province of Sicily, rifled the cities, Jlript the private 

houfes, and pillaged the temples. 
Siciliam provinciam Verres, per triennium depopulate* 

eft Siculorum, civitates vajlajje domes exinanajje, fana 

fpoliajfy dicitur. . 



OF 






THE MAKING OF LATIN: vjj 

F T HE 

POSITION of WORDS 

IN 

LATIN COMPOSITION. 

THE grand fecret, the great myftery, of the pofition 
of words in the Latin tongue, lies principally in 
thefe two points, viz. 

1. That the word governed be placed before the word which 
governs it. 

2. That the word agreeing be placed after the word with 
which it agrees, 

Thefe two may be termed the maxims of pofition ; 
and from them refult various rules, which may be con- 
veniently divided into two claffes ; viz. 

i. Rules refulting from the government of words. 

2. Rules refulting from the agreement of words. 
To which add a third clafs, viz. 

3. Mifcellaneous rules, not reducible to either of th« 
two claffes foregoing. 



RULES OF POSITION. 

Class I. 

Rules refulting from the Government of Words. 

Rule i. 

A VERB in the infinitive mood (if it be governed) 
is ufually placed before the word which governs 
it. 

Rule 2. 

A noun in an oblique cafe is commonly placed be- 
fore the word which governs it ; whether that word be 
a verb, or another noun-fubftantive, adjeclive, or par- 
ticiple. 



JyS AN INTRODUCTION TO; 

Rule 3. 

Dependent claufes, as well as fingle- words, are plaeecf 
before the principal finite verb Ga which fuch clflfufes- 
do mainly depend. 

Rule 4* 

The finite verb is commonly placed Iail in its own 
claufe. 

Rule 5. 

Prepofnions ufually precede the cafes governed by 
them. 



Class II. 

Rules refulilng from the Agreement cf Words* 

Rule 6. Firft Concord. 

The finite verb is ufually placed after its nominative 
cafe, fome times at the diitanee of many words. 

Rule 7. Second Concord. 

The adjective or participle is commonly placed after 
the fubliantive with which it agrees. 

Rule 8. Third Concord. 

The relative is commonly placed after the antecedent 
with which it agrees. 

Rule 9. Third Concord. 

The relative is placed as near to the antecedent as- 
pofilble. 

Class III. 

Mlfccllaneous Rules.. 

Rule 10. Adverbs.. 

Adverbs are placed before rather than after the 
words to which they belong. 

Rule ti.. Adverbs. 

Adverbs are in general placed immediately before 
the words to which they belong ; no extraneous words 
coming between. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 179 

Rule 12. 

Jgitur, autem, cnlm, et\am> are very feldom placed firft 
in a claufe or ientence. The enclitics que, ne % ve, ave 
never placed firft. 

Rule 13. 

Tamen is very often and elegantly placed after the 
firft, fecond or third word of the claufe in wh'ch it 
itands. 

Rule 14. 

Connected words fhould go together ; that is, they 
may not be feparated from one another by words thaj 
are extraneous, and have no relation to them. 

Rule 15. Cadence. 

The cadence or concluding part of a claufe or fey.* 
tence fhould very feldom ponfift of monofyliables» 

Rule i£. 

So far as other rules arid perfpicuity will allow, in the 
arrangement and choice of words, when the foregoing 
ends with a vowel, let the next begin with a conic nant j 
and vice verfa. 

Rule 17. 

In .general a redundancy of fhort words muft be 
avoided. 

Hule 18. 

In general a redundancy of long words muft be- 
avoided. 

•Rule .19. 

In general there muft be no redundancy of long mea- 
fares. 

Rule 20. 

In general there muft be no redundancy of fhort mea* 
fures. 

Rule 21. 

The laft fyllables of the foregoing word muft not be 
the fame as the firft fyllables ot the word following. 



iSo AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Rule 22. 

Many words, which bear the fame quantity, which 
begin alike, or end alike, or which have the fame cha- 
racteriftic letter in declenfion or conjugation, (many 
fuch words) may not come together. 



THE RULES OF POSITION, WITH THEIR 
EXCEPTIONS, EXEMPLIFIED. 

Rule i. 

" A VERB in the infinitive mood (if it be govern* 
XjL ed) is ufually placed before the word which 
governs it." 

EXAMPLES. 

1. Ami cum ladere ne joco quidem licet* 

2. Amor mifceri cum timore non pot eft. 

3. Dan bonum qnod potuit, aufcrri pot eft, 

4. E riper e telum, non dare irato decet. 

5. Tacere fccpe tutum eft. 

EXCEPTIONS. 

I. When the ear informs that the infinitive mood 
"would found better after the word which governs it, to 
gratify the ear, place it after, as Cicero has done in the 
following inftance : " Ex quibus neminem mini necejfe eft 
nominare ; vofmet vobifcum recordamini ; nolo enim cu- 
jufquam fortis atque illuflris viri ne minimum quidem 
erratum cum maxima laude conjungere" If nominare had 
preceded necejfe ejl> die cadence would have been injured 
l>y a monofyllable ; and if nolo were to follow its infini- 
tive conjungere, a daclyl and a fpcndee would be there 
formed, where in profe fuch a meafure mould be nevef 
found, namely, in the cadence : for what is the proper 
cadence of a verfe may very well begin, but mould not 
conclude, a fentence in profe ; the folemn harmony of 
profe being fo far removed above fuch affectation, as the 
.majeftic marching of a ibldier is more noble than the 
dancing of a jig.. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. i8-i 

2. To avoid a concurrence of vowels, the infinitive 
mood may ibmetimes follow the word that governs it ; 
as, " Bonus pucr amat intclltgere" rather than intelligert 
amat. The reafon of which is, that a concurrence oi 
vowels is apt ibmetimes to impede the voice, by caufmg 
a very unpleafant hiatus, or opening of the mouth, and 
fufpending for a while the organs of fpeech, ih as to 
make them labour in their office, as any one may fenfi- 
bly perceive by reading aloud this line of Ovid, 

" Omne folum forti patria eft, ut pifcibus sequor." 

The difficulty of uttering patria eft is absolutely felt, the 
movements of the tongue in getting through the ia-e are 
fo very awkward : and therefore this concurrence of 
vowels is thus condemned by Quinctilian (whofe opinion 
to fupport my own, for the learner's aifurance, I fliali 
quote on many -occafions) : Turn votalium concurfus ; qtd 
cum accidit, hlat et interfjlit, et quaji lalorat oratio. 



Rule 2. 

? A ^OUN tn an °hlique cafe is commonly placed 
JLX. before the word which governs it, whether that 
word be a verjb, or another noun, fubftantive, adjective 
or participle." 

EXAMPLES. 

1. Bewfcia dure qui nefcit*, rnju&e petit. 

2. Amicos res optima" par'iunt^ adverfae proband 
-3, Fcrtiinam citius rap as y quam reltntas, 

4. Innpi benzjicium bis dat t qui celeriter dat. 

5. Data fd/t reminifcicur. Vehementer ird excan- 

duit. 
G. Mens futon prafcta. Patri funiti;. 
j . Am or £ t mcVe t i felle e it fcecund'ijjimus. 

EXCEPTION. 

The exertion to this rule is as that to the foregoing. 
To fiiciliate the utterance, or to gratify the ear, the 
■R 



IS* AN INTRODUCTION TO 

word governed may be fet after that which governs it ; 
and the ear is thus oftentimes gratified, when the 'word 
governed, being longer than that which governs it, i$ 
therefore let after it ; as we ihall fee hereafter. 



Rule 3. 

« yxEPENDENT claufe s, as well as fmgle words, 
\J are placed before the principal finite verb, on 
which fuch claufe s do mainly .depend. " 

Note. — .Not only fmgle words, but, by a kind of link 
or chain connecting feveral words together, whole clauf- 
es may be dependent on one word, and come under the 
general maxim of being placed before it. 



EXAMPLES. 



I. Gefar fays, that of all the Gauls the Belga? were 
the braveit, becaufe merchants leaft of all converted with 
and brought them thofe things which effeminate the mind ; At* 
qua ea, qua ad efjecminandos anhnos pertinent, important» 

Here the pronoun ea being governed of the verb m- 
portant, is therefore put before it. But why mould the 
intefW&diate claufe qua ad e. a. p. come alio before i?n- 
fortant ? Becaufe, for perfpicuity, the relative qua mould 
not be feparated from its antecedent ea ; and if qua can- 
not be feparated from ea, much lefs can ad effxmandos 
animus pertinent be feparated from qua by the intervention 
of important, which would be giving to qua a new verb, 
and fpoil the fenfe } fo that important is neceffarily placed 
laft here, not only ea its immediate dependent being to 
Come before it, but likewife that whole intermediate 
claufe, which through the medium of ea depends on it 
alio. 

2. Cafar nvas dejlrous of doing a hirtdntfs to his friend 9 s 
fan, tvho was then with the army in Spain. — Cafar amicijUio 
qui turn in H'tfpanid miiitabat, henefcium agere cup'ulat. 

Cupiebat is here the principal finite verb, and is pro- 
perly placed laft in the fentence. The infinitive agere 
comes before it by R. 1, being governed of it 5 for 



THE MAKING OF I.ATINV 183 

«lie like, reafon, by R. 2, beneficium the accusative, and 
JiitO the dative, are let before agere, they being both go- 
verned by that infinitive ; nor can amici 1 by any means 
be feparatcd from filio, with which it is even naturally 
connected : and Cafiir Hands foremoft hec^, as being the 
nominative cafe ; while that entire claufe qui turn in ttif* 
partid mUitabqt comes before cupiebat, and- before beneficium 
dgere too, that the relative ^/i and its adjuncts may fol- 
low the antecedcnt^frVo as foon as poiTible, according to 
R. 9. Thus is the pofition of every word in this fen- 
tence regularly accounted for, fas, by fome rule or other ^ 
there is fcarcely a word in all the 'volumes of Cicero, lufcyft 
right pfition may be accounted for ;) and thus it appears 
that the v principal finite verb cupiebat, being placed la ft, 
is placed \yj||^e it ought to be. 

3. Supflflf more words under this fame government : 
the principle verb cupiebat will Hill retain its pofition : — 
Thus, /'* 

Cafar w'Jhed to do a hindnefs to his friend 9 s fon y «who was 
then with the army in Spain, and who had before, in the late 
wars, with great %eal commanded fome horfe, — Cafar amici 
Jilio, qui turn, in Hifpanid militalat, atque idem jam antea bcl/is 
prioribus equiiatui fedule prafuerat, beneficium agere cupiebat. 

Here every word from qui, turn, &c. to prafuerat, hav- 
ing relation to filio the antecedent, mud by R. 9 be im- 
mediately annexed to it ; and confequently becaufe by 
R« 2JU10 comes before beneficium agere cupiebat, alFfhofe 
fourteen words, from qui to prafuerat, mud precede like- 
wife. 

4. If it had been the father, Cscfar's friend (wlmfe 
name, we will fay, was Lentulus) that had commanded 
fome horfe m Csefar\s wars, and Ciefar therefore wifhed' 
to ferve his fon, ftill all relative terms, having relation 
Xofilio, muft, as well ^% filio, be fet before the principal' 
verb cupiebat : Thus, 

Cafar amici filio, qui turn in Hifpanid militabat, et cuius pa- 
ter Lentulus (nam hoc crat nomen amico) jam antea Idiis 'prio* 
riblis e quit atui prafuerat, beneficium agere cupiebat, 

EXCEPTION. 

The exception to this third rule is, when the fentence 
is very long and complicated j when it is made up of fo 



i8+ AN INTRODUCTION TO 

many kindred and dependent claufes, that were they all 
to come between the principal verb and nominative cafe, 
the relation between that verb and its nominative might 
be obfeured or loft. 

When this happens,- to avoid prolixity, the principal 
verb and nominative cafe mult be brought together, ci- 
ther at the beginning of the fentence, or at the end ; ra- 
ther at the beginning ; though ibmctimes the whole pe- 
riod may receive a peculiar force and energy from the 
principal verb and nominative cafe- being fet lad. How- 
ever, in general, the principal verb and nominative cafe 
o/ a long fentence mould be in the fore-front ; and re- 
member, that if the chief verb have any words immediate- 
ly depending on it, as cupiebat above has agere benejicium, 
it will attract them, and they mull all go together. Thus 
if in the foregoing example the fentence had been fome- 
what more extenlive, the principal verb, its nominative 
cafe and immediate dependents would appear better in 
the beginning : — As, 

Cafar wijhed to do a kindnefs to his friend* s fin, who war 
then with the army in Spain, and whife father Lentulus (for 
fo his friend iv as named) had in former wars with great zeal 
commanded the cavalry, and, at length worn out with ^war and 
wounds rather than old age, had died at Adrumetum in Africa. 
Cafar hcaeficimn agere cupiebat amicijilio, qui turn in H'fpanid 
miliiabat, et ejufdem pater Lentulus (nam hoc erat nomen amicoj 
Idl'u prior ilus equitatui Jedule prafuerat ; et tandem militia po* 
this et vulneribus quam at ate conftlus, in Africa apud Adrume- 
tum njlid funclus fuerat. 

Note. — It being faid above, that a fentence may fome- 
times acquire an increafed energy from the principal 
verb and its nominative being placed laft ; it may be 
ufeful here to exhibit an inftance of it. There is a link- 
ing one in Seneca, De Benef /. 6, c. 31, where that au- 
thor fpeaks of the proud expedition of Xerxes, and the 
fhameful rout he met with from a few Greeks. 

Divina atque humana impellentem, et mutant cm quicquid ob- 
Jiiterat trecenti flare jufferunt. Siratufque per totam pajfim 
Graciam Xerxes intellexit, quantum ah exercitu turba difta- 
ret. 



TOE MAKING OF LATIN, 185 

"This pofition of the nominative cafe and verb is 
then molt proper, when any particular emphaiis belongs 
to them, ar fomething, whatever it be, that Is extraordi- 
nary, and demands attention. Xerxes invaded Europe 
with fleets and armies £b immenfe as to be almoft innu- 
merable. Yet thus omnipotent, as he fancied himfelf, 
he met tvitli an unexpected obitacle at Thermopylae, 
where his march was (lopped, not by numbers equal to 
his own, but by a little troop of three hundred Spartans, 
under their brave king Leonidas ; which is a circum- 
stance moil remarkable : and therefore* in the paflage 
above, this little troop, trecentl, and what they achieved, 
Jlare jujjerunt are judici6tiify*i&f in that part of the fen- 
tenec/ namely, at the cadence-,- which is ever apt to ilrike 
more forcibly on the mind, and to be retained longeft, 
rebounding and abiding, as it were, on the ears of the 
audience. 

Again, that this fame Xerxes, the proudeft, vaineft 
mortal that ever lived, mould be fo brought to a right 
way of thinking, as to perceive the difference between 
a multitude and an army, is what in fuch a man one- 
would hardly expect ; and therefore in the fame paflage 
.we find the fecond cadence to confift in Xerxes tntellexit. 

Farther, becauie it is truly fo, that a multitude, an un- 
disciplined mafs of men, whether they be armed with 
Perfian fabres or Gallic pikes, do not conilitute, but are 
very inferior to, an army 5 and becaufe this reflection 
may lead to prudent counfels, it is a circumitance that 
demands attention ;, and therefore the fubject or nomi- 
native cafe and its verb being in this proportion, the 
words of moil import are there placed where they will 
be moil noticed, i. e. at the ciofe ; thus, Quantum ab ex- 
ercttit turha diftare}. The futility and inferiority of the 
rabble, by being propounded lail, are likely to make the 
Jail impreflion, and the reflection therefore to be moil at- 
tended to ; for both in hearing and in reading, thofe 
ideas ilrike moft which ilrike Lilt, and thofe impreifions 
are moil fenfib'ly felt, and the longeft retained, which 
are lail made. This is as natural in the human mind, 
as it is for moft echoes to repeat not the rife but the fail 
ef "founds, even that with which the air is lait affe&ed, 
Ra 



x86 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

and with which only the ear is twice faluted, becaufe it 
is that which is laft and moil ftrongly reverberated. 



Rule 4. 

" r I 1 £^ finite verb is commonly placed laft in its own 
JL claufc." 

Verba fenfum cludere (fays Qui.n Chilian) multo Ji com-po- 
Jltio patiaiur y optimum eft : in verbis enlm fermonis vis infi. 

Ina. 9, 4. 



EXAMPLES. 



i. Negandi caufa avaro nunquam deficit. 

2. Nimium altercando Veritas amittitur. 

3. Nil proprium ducas, quod mutarier^A^. 

4. NecefTe eft, multos timeat, quern multi timent. 
Though in fa& the prefent rule is little dfc than what 

hath been already inculcated ; for if infinitives muft 
come before finites, and oblique cafes before the verbs 
which govern them, it is plain that finite verbs muft. 
come laft ; yet this is properly made an exprefs rule, that 
the learner may take due heed to the pofuion of that 
word., which is truly defined to be the chief word in 
every fentence, and indeed en that very account to be 
generally placed laft. 

EXCEPTIONS. 

1. To avoid an improper concurrence of vowels, or 
on any other account to gratify the ear, the finite verb 
may have another pofitipn than that to which this rule 
configns it. 80 the mind be duly informed, we may 
always footh the ear. And therefore, when Quinctilian 
fijs that the verb mould be laft, if porTTble, he imme- 
diately adxls, at ft u. I nfperum erit, cedat hac ratio numcris ; 
lit fit apud /amnios Gnecos Latinofque oratores freqaenliffime. 
And again, ex loco transfiruniur in locum (verba) ut }un- 
ganlur, *quo congruuni maxhne. 

2. When the verb' is a monofy liable,, then it fhould 
not take the laft place in "a'claufe or fentence : for fuch 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 187 

words fpoil the cadence, making it fudden and abrupt ; 
which, unlefs occafion requires it to be ib > fhould be 
carefully avoided. Whether the cadence ihould be foft 
and harmonious, or grave and ferious, it muft not be 
abrupt. Cicero was extremely nice and exact in form- 
ing the latter part of his periods, fo choofmg and plant- 
ing his words, that his fentences might eaiily and gra- 
dually come to their clofe. For, as Quinctilian obferves, 
though there mould be harmony in the whole, yet that 
harmony is mod needed, and the effect of it moil evi- 
dent, in the clofe : Magis tamen et dfideraiur in claufulu ei 
apparet (numerus.) . 



p* 



Rule 5. 

REPOSITIONS ufually precede the cafes go- 
erned by them." 



EXAMPLES. 



Eo in urlem. Sub judlce lis eft. Pofc fata quiefcit. 

Nunquam lrbertas gratior ex tat, 
Quamyi/i rege pio. 

EXCEFTIONS. 

This rule is contrary to the general maxim of placing 
the word governed before the word which governs it; 
yet the cafe itfelf is fo far congruous to the general po- 
sition, that there is no rule which has mere exceptions 
titan the p relent. 

1. V erf US) towards ■, is fet after its cafe ; as Londinum 
verfus, towards London. 

2. Tenus, as far as, is fet after its cafe, whether that 
cafe be an ablative or genitive ; as Porta- tenus ; annum 
tenus. 

3. Penes, in the power of may follow its cafe ; as Om- 
nia adfunt bona, quern penes ejl <virtus. Plaut. 

4. Ufque, even to, or as far as, whether with or . with- 
out a concomitant particle 1 , is elegantly fet after its cafe ; 
as Romam ufque ; ad Romtim ufque ; trans Alpes ufque ; alt 
Athenls ufque. 



x83 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

5. Cum, with, is commonly fet after thefe words, me, 
te,fe, quo, qua, qui, qu'ibus, nobis and vobls ; as mecum, te- 
cum, &ta 

In ihort, there is hardjy any preposition which may 
not be iometimj; found after its cafe. Here follow a 
few initances more rare than the foregoing : 

Tempora circum. Virj. Pocuhi circum. Luc ret, 

Quern contra. Cic. Populo coram. Suet. 

Specula de mentis. Virg. Montibus in noitris. Id. 

SiiiJ'ia in contraria. V'irg. $hiercus inter et iiices. Her. 

Corpore pro Nymphae. Ov. Me fine. Virg. 

VitWs tivcnojtne nafcitur. Hor. Majfd latuere/}/Z» id- 
fi. Ov, 

Fluclus fubter labere Sicanos. Virg. Membra fiber. Luc 

Scopulum fupcr. Ph<eJ. JrLtc fuper impofuit. Ov. 

£>jos ultra cltra qae. Hor. Mortem all quid ultra eft r 

Sen. 

Thefe liberties, ufed both by profe writers and poets, 
the learner may adopt, to aifut metre in verfe, and at 
all times for euphony, or emphaiis. 



Rule 6. Fuji Concord. 

u r TH HE finite verb is ufually placed after its nomina- 
\ tive cafe, fomethnes at the diftance of many 

Word*" 

Though we have feen this very fully exemplified in 
former rules, yet this pofition of the verb with refpedc 
to its nominative cafe, or rather the pofition of the no- 
minative cafe itfelf, has not been yet diftinctly attended 
to : and they who in(truc~t children, know the danger of 
leaving any thing to be gathered by inference, however 
.obvious. It is neceflary moreover to propofe this rule, 
as it affords an opportunity of looking into its exceptions, 
which are important. 

This rule, in other words, i s, The nominative cafe is com* 
monly fet before its verb. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. Mors omnibus eft communis. Cic. 
%. Sylla omnes fuos '-divi'tiis expkv.it. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. iS<j 

}. Amor mifccri cum timore non foteft, 

EXCEPTIONS. 

1. In very fliort fentences the nominative cafe is nc- 
quently let after the verb ; us, " Quare, patres conferip- 
ti, fecedant hnprobL" Clc, tu OeciJus eft cum liber is Mar- 
cus Fufoius, confularii" Id. ** Crtjctt in dies fmgulos 
boftlum numerui." Id " Ktfchdaniur mufti." Id. 

2. And in longer fentences, to improve the cadence, 
the nominative may follow the verb ; obliques and infi- 
nitives, if there be any, being (till placed foremoit, ac- 
cording to rules t, 2 ; as, 

" Quoufque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia noftra >' 
Quamdiu etiam furor iite tuus nos eludet ? Quern ad 
flnem £q{q effrxnnta. jafiabit auddcia ?" Cic. 

Read the nominative audacia here before jatlabit, ths 
cadence will be ruined, and the ear will immediately de- 
termine that it is very properly placed after ; whereas, 
if you read furor, the other nominative after eludd, the 
ear will be no lefs offended there. This (hews, that on 
fuch occafions the ear is to be confuked, and that the 

}>roper place of the nominative is before the verb, un- 
efs harmony require it to be after, perfpicuity at the 
fame time allowing it to be fo. 

3. Becaufe, as we have been already advifed, the ca- 
dence is that part of the period which makes moft im- 
predion on the mind ; and becaufe fentences, as well as 
difcourfes, if well conftrucled, will ever grow more em- 
phatic as they advance, according to that of QuiiiclU 
Man, Augeri enhn debent fentent'ice et tnfurgere; for theie rea^ 
fons, if in" the nominative cafe there be any thing that 
fhould flrike moil, and draw much attention, the cadence 
of courfe is the place for that word to appear in*; as, 

M Aderat janitor carcercs, carnifex protons, mors ter- 
ror que fociorum et civium Romano rum, llclor Seftlus" 

Cic\ in Vcr. 

Whoever, fays Monf. Rollin in his Belles Lettres, 
fpeaking of this paiTage, whoever fhould puc licfor SJiius 
in the beginning, would fpoil the period. The dreadful 
apparatus of this executioner, this carniftx, as Cicero ra- 



too AN INTRODUCTION TO 

peatedly ftyles him in his pleadings againft Verres, fliouli 
go before him. 

u Qind p atcm ? Contempumnc me ? Non video, nee 
in vita, nee in gratia, nee in rebus gefiis, nee in hac mea 
medioeritate ingenii, quid iefoicere, poffh jtitomusJl 

Clc. Philip. 2. 

Cicero moaned, that, of all the people in the world, 
the hill was Antony, to whom, on any fcore of merit, 
he (faould expect to he an object of contempt. He has 
clearly fhewn his meaning, by placing Jnlonlus in the 
cadence ; and by the fame pofition of that word he has 
iully exprefled his own contempt of Antony. 

" Hafta pofita pro aede jovis Statoris bona CnH Pompeii: 
(miferum me ! confumptis enim lacrymis, tamen injheus 
animo baret dolor!) bona inquam, Cnxi Pompeii Magni 
voci acerbifiimie fubjecta prseconis." uie. Philip. 2. 

Cicero upbraids Antony with the cruel and fhameful 
manner in which he had infulted Pompey the Great, the 
champion of Roman liberty, and more than once the 
faviour of the ftate. Antony had confiscated the goods, 
of that illuftrious Roman, and had even expofed them 
to fale at public auction. Now It was not the auction, 
(haf a pofita) nor the place where the au&ion was holden, 
(pro£ae Jovis Statoris) but the bona Cn$i Pompeity it being . 
Pompey's goods that were fo diflionoured ; this was the 
circumibance by which Cicero would inflame the fenate 
with indignation againft his adverfary ; and therefore, 
with' great judgment, this nominative and its adjuncts 
(bona Gnal Pompeii) conclude the firft fentence. 

In that charming parcntliefis, again, how admirably 
does the nominative dolor ftrike the laft blow, that it 
might thereby be Infxus, enftamped and rooted, as in? 
the fpeaker's own mind, fo alio in the breafl of his au- 
dience ! And finely, if there be any thing in the por- 
tion of words, dolor is meft critically planted here, whe- 
ther t\\% orator had in view to kindle the like paffion in 
tlie bofoms of the conicript fathers, or to teftify his own 
fixed refentment at fuch indign ufage of Pompey ; and 
that, though he did not weep indeed, his tears being all. 
cxhaufted, there (till remained in his mind that which 
was inextricable, and which would gore him to the laft — 
indigiiant grief» 



THE MAKING OT LATIN. 191 

But in the cadence, at the clofe of the whole parage, 
jive find fraebnisy not bona Cn*i f <3cc. and that with pecu- 
liar propriety. The dignity of the pcribnage here 

fpoken of had Been already fufficiently attended to. . 
Pompey once critically named, and every thing being * 
gained that could be from the refpeft which the feaate 
entertained for that character, (here, however, and not 

before, moil feafonably amplified by the ftyle and epi- 
thet of Magni) it was the artful management of Cicero 
to give moil force now to that aggravating term prxco- 
.tiis, the common crier, the inftrument of Antony in pro- 
failing Pompey's honour. 

" Stat fua cuique dies" V*rg* 

More than the meafure of the verfe, the natural im- 
portance' of this nominative dies here, that fatal day, is 
happily accorded to by its being there placed, where it 
muit needs make the lad and mod fenhble impreiHon on 
the reflecting mind. Tranfpofe thefe words, thus, 
Cuique dies fuajlat. 

Here is no falfe quantity, but the verfe much deform- 
ed ; becaufe dies is fpoiled of its dignity by that too fpcedy 
tranfition which mud now be made to the words that 
follow. So much in writing may be loll or won by the 
poiition of a'fingle word; and fo much may be effected 
by a well-judged cadence. Srepe famen ejl vehemens alkp.is 
fenfus in verb/) ; quodji in media parte fftitentla latet, iranjiri 
iutentione, et obfeurari circumjacentibus foiei ; in cJavfuia pofitu.n 
ajfignatur auditor}, et infigiiur, Qjduu. 

4. The nominative cafe is properly let after its verb, 
when it (the nom.) is the antecedent to a relative that 
cannot well come before that verb, nor yet by the in- 
tervention of other words be feparated from its antece- 
dent : As, in Cicero, 

" Lucius Ritforius Cadinas fecit h^rcdem. Et qui- 
dem vide, quam tc amavit is, qui albus aterve fueris lg- 
norans, fratris filium prssteriit !" 

This is a farcafm of Cicero again ft Antony, who had 
boalled of his having been named as heir in more wills 
than Cicero ever was. Cicero allows this ; but accounts 
for it. He infmuates, that Antony had forged many 
of the wills, in which he had been fo greatly favoured* 



i92 A!- INTRODUCTION TO 

Lucius Rubiiu.s of Cadmum, fays he, made you his heir, 
ixi preference to his own nephew ; a ftrange inftance of 
affection this in one who" knew notning of you ! In 
this paflage is^ the .nominative to amqviti is the antece- 
t dent, and qui the relative : Is is the pretended tcftator, 
qui aihus aierviy t*fc. the*circumftance by which it mould 
ieem that he w*as only a pretended teftator, that is, the 
antecedent. Is, 'tonvfWm Antony became heir, and the 
relative qui, to whom Antony was never known, denote 
the fame m:ift.**X)f courfe, the inconfiftency, which 
Cicero alludfs to,- is ftrcngthened and made more fla- 
grant by thofe two members of the period, is, qui, being 
thus united ; but united they could not be, if the nomi- 
native ix were placed before amav/t ; for if it were fo 
placed, the relative qui could not accompany it without 
entirely mutilating and diimembering the whole tex- 
ture of the fentence. 

From all that has been faid under this rule, there are 
three inferences to be drawn : 

i. That a judicious pofition of words mightily con- 
duces to the itrength and beauty of a difcourfe : hence 
the importance of theft rules. 

2. That fpccial care fhould be had to form an cafy, 
flowing and harmonious cadence. V. infra R. 15. 

3. That into the cadence mould be thrown (fo it be 
done with perfpicuity and order) not only a nominative 
cafe, but any Other word, which, being of extraordinary 
import, may by that pofition he let off to advantage, 
and obtain its due weight* Thus .Cicero, in the exam- 
ple above, gave great ftrenglh to pnrconis by fetting it in 
the cadence, whereas in its natural place before voc't acer- 
hijjtma that avord would have been loft almoft in infigni- 
flcance. And thus, when Q-uinctilian in his chapter de 
Ccmpofiiicnc, fpcaking of the cadence, would give an in- 
ftance of ft very fine one, he chofe one from Cicero's fe- 
cond -Philippic, confiding of the adverb poftridte. — 
" Quale eft illud Ciceronis ; Ut tlli neceffe effrt in confpeBu 
Populi Reman* vctmve pofriaie. Transfer hoc ultimum, 
minus valebit. Nam -tot-lus ductus hie eft quafi mucro : 
ut per fe -fadx vome-ndi neceffitati (jam nihil ultra ex- 
r peclantit>us) hanc quoque adjiccret deforrnitatem, ut ci- 



T&E MAKING O'F LATIN. 193 

bus teiicri non pbfiet pa/tridie. To vomit after wxhjs be- 
travs intemperance : but to retch 

d 




trufie in th ; s parage ; and the reafon of its appearing in 
the cadence, there nicely planted to badge Antony with 
the deformed and beiiial character of a drunkai i. 



T® 



Rule 7. 

HE adjective or participle is commonly placed 
iter the fubftantrve with which it agrees." 



EXAMPLES. 



1. " Ah eo ordiri volui maxime, quod et atat't tut 
cffel arJtiflimurri, et autiorttati mea." 6ur. 

2. u Rebus pnefentibus adjungit atque anneclit futu* 
rkM Id. 

3- H Vitae curium videt, ad eamque degendam prse- 
parat res neceffdrias" Id. 

4. " Generi animantiurn omni eft a natura tributum, ut 
fe, vitam, corpufque tueatur." . Id. 

5. u Amb'iito major : vita triflicr." Id» 

EXCEPTIONS. 

1. To avoid' a difagreeable concurrence of vowel ij 
there may be frequent occafion to fet the adjective be- 
fore its fubftantive : •&%,'" I nnuba puella ; — h<e d'fciplinte" 
See other iiiftahces under the following' exception. 

2. In Cicero the adjeclive often precedes the fubftan- 
tive when the latter* c^rffifts" of more fyllables than the 
former, efpeciail'y if trfe adjeclive be a' very' fliort word, 
and the lubilahtive ; as, " Wa d{f}pllnx igitur ; 
hoc -crimed ; tii'ag:\<? <•; . v ; x nUa officii pracepta ; pro- 
pria eil ea przceptio rnir hoc quidem tern- 
pore, et hoi in avcjil'one pctiiL; Qudlo 2£t%- 
tem confump:]." Cic. 

Unlefs there are manifert re^ons* for the dnint 
longer words ihould generally be plated ■:: 
b 



ip 4 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

are fhorter ; for when polyfyllables are fucceeded by 
iiiort words, efpecially by monofyllables, the lano- ua g e 
is deformed and trunklefs. The bails of a period is its 
cadence. Claufula eft ftdcs orationis, fays Quinctilian; and 
as a wife builder will be careful to give much ftrength 
to the ground-work, fo good compofition requires that 
long words do in general, as by their own weight, in- 
cline towards the cadence, which is then made more 
gradual ; the period throughout is ftrengthened ; and by 
fuch periods the whole difcourfe becomes nervous and 
fedate. 

3. When the fubftantive, with which the adjective 
agrees, has a genitive cafe depending on it, the adjective 
; is better placed firit, and the genitive next, the fubftan- 
tive, on which the genitive depends, being fet lafl of the 
three ; as, " His ergo fancliffimis reipvtblicte vocibus pauca 
reipondebo." Cic. " Nulla cwm vita pars.." . Id. " Illud 
forenfe dicendi, hoc quietUm difputandi genus" Id. i; Ulla~ 
cjficii pracepia." Id» 

4- When the fubftantive, with which the adjective 
agrees, is itfelfa genitive cafe governed of another fub- 
ftantive ; then alio the adjective may be firft of the three, 
and the genitive,. according to R. 2, before the fubftan- 
tive which -governs it ; as, " Omnium Gallorum copia." 
" Ut.par fis in utriufque orationis facilitate." Cic. . 

5. Sometimes the adjective is fet before the fubftan- 
tive for no other reafon than only to gratify the ear : 
Bonus puer. Celer equus. Magnum Jludium. ■ Sumtmtm bo- 
num» 

We muft not think fcorn of the ear's judgment, to 
which our mafter, Quinctilian, makes great conceilions. 
Uptime autem de ilia [compofitione] judicant auret ; qua et 
plena fentiunt, et parum expleta dtftderant, et fragofts offendun- 
tur, ei lenibus mulcmtur^ et contortis excitantur> et Jlabilia pro- 
bant) elauda deprel\ndunt, redundantia et nimia faftidiunt. In- 
Jlit. 9, 4. Nay, the ear, he fays, is fo general, fo nice a 
judge, that even illiterate perfons thereby are charmed 
with a good compofition, though they cannot, like the 
fcholar, account for the pleafure they receive, nor give 
the reafon why. Ideoque docli ratio nem componendi 'mtelligunt, 
etiam iadocji yoluptatcm. Ibid. By all means therefore let 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 195 

tfie learner confult his ear, repeating to himfelf again 
and again the lame words in divers pofitions, always 
•however within the prefcript of rules ; and by degrees 
ufe will enable him to afcertain the right pofition, quoad 
numerunu 



Rule 8. 



U r T^ ^-^ relative is commonly placed after the ante- 
JL cedent with which it agrees." 

EXAMPLES. 

i. " Cognosces ex - lis Uteris-., quas liberto tuo &tdu" 

Cic. 
z. Male fecum agit ager, medicum qui haeredem facitv 

EXCEPTIONS. 

I. Monf. Lancelot, in his New Method, iffc. well ob- 
ferves, that the relative qui, iffc. mould generally be con- 
Udered as between two cafes of the fame fubftantive ; 
and then by the third concord it agrees with the forego- 
ing fubftantive, as the true antecedent, in gender, num- 
ber and perfon ; by the fecond concord, with the fol- 
lowing fubftantive, in cafe, gender and number. Thefe 
two fubftantive s are fometimes actually expreiTed, both 
the one and the other ; as, " Bellum tantum, quo hello om~ 
nes premebantur, Pompeius confecit." Cic. " Ultra 
eum locum, quo in loco Germani confederant." Caf. " Di- 
em inftare, quo die frumentum militibus.metiri oporteret," 
Id. Csefar, a mod exacl writer, was fond of this phrafe ; 
' and it mould always be adopted, when without it there 
may be any danger of ambiguity, as the following in- 
fiance will lliew ; " Leodamantem, Cleophili difcipulum, 
qui Cleophilus, t$c" ApuL If Cleophilus had not been re- 
peated, qui might erroneoufiy be referred to Leodamantem, 
Inftead of the true antecedent Cleophili. Thus much it 
was neceffary to premife for a right under (landing of 
what follows. 



i?6 AN INTRODUCTION T0 

Of thefe two cafes, between which the relative is faii 
to ftand, that which follows the relative is ufuaily omit- 
ted, the other, the true antecedent, is more commonly 
expreffed, and from hence arifes the prefent rule. 

But it happens fcmetimes, and elegantly, that the true 
antecedent is omitted, and the following cafe expreffed, 
which, though in fact no exception to the rule, yet ap- 
pears to be fo, and muK be attended to accordingly. — 
Here are inilances of this apparent, though no real, ex- 
ception : 

1. " Nemini credo, qui dives blanditur pauperl." 
The full expreftion would be, Nemini cliviti credo, qui 

dives, &c. 

2. " Populo at placerent, quas feci ffet fibulas." Ter. 
Pcpulo ut ilia fabulg placer ent, quas fecijfet f abides. 

3. f Illi, fcripta quibus comcedia- prifca viris eiL" 

Hon 
Illi vh ; , fcripta quibus comcedia prifca viris ejl. > 

4. " Atque alii, quorum comcedia prifca virorum eft." 
Atqut alii wW, quorum, l£c. virorum, ejl. \Idk 

5. Ci'jus odorem old neoueas perfcrre 



Ccrnu ipfe bilibri 
Caulibiis inftillaU LL 
Ipfe cortiu bilibri injiillat caulibus oleum, cujus old, life. 
The learner now perceives in what manner the ante- 
cedent may feem to be placed after the relative ; the an- 
tecedent, in truth, being underftood, and the other cafe, 
which is commonly omitted, being in fuch phrafes ex- 
preiTed. 

But this other cafe, this fecond fubftantive, which ufu- 
aily follows the relative, may be placed, as by the poets 
it often is, before the relative, the true antecedent being 
ftill underftood ; as, 

1. Urbem quhm ftatuo, veftra eft. Virg. 

Here urbem is evidently the fubjuncliye noun, elfe it 
would not be in the ace. cafe, the full fenterice being, 
II dec urbs, quam urbem Jlatuo, veflra ejl, 

2. Eunuchum quern dedifti nobis, quas turbas dedit \ 
IJle eunuchus, quern eun'ucJjum, fSc. ' ' \jTer. 

3. Naucreatem quern con venire volui, in navi non erat> 

IPlaut- ' 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 197 

Niiucreates, quern Naucreatem, &c. 

Thus explained, many paflagcs in the Latin authors 
will be as eafy as they are elegant ; while, for want of 
this obvious resolution, they have been thought very dif- 
ficult, as particularly that of Plautus above has perplex- 
ed many commentators, 

2. A real exception. The relative may be placed be- 
fore its antecedent, when for any fufficient reafon it can- 
not Be fet immediately after it, and then no where after it, 
much lefs a great diftance after it, without ambiguity. 
See this illuftrated, under the next rule, in the example, 
u ' Ha:: qui faculty &c" 



T 



Rule 9. 

1 HE relative is placed as near to the antecedent 
as poflibk," 



EXAMPLES.* 

1» The reafon of this rule is, that the connection be- 
.'V'?en the relative and antecedent (the clue many times' 
of the whole period) may be kept as clear and as free 
from obfeurity as poiTible. According to this rule, ma- 
ny words rnu ft not (land betwixt the relative and ante- 
cedent; for by fuch a : Reparation the ligature or tie of 
thefe two. important members of the period may be 
weakened, perhaps deflroyed ; nor may we place ! e- 
tween them any word at all, -which from fuch a political 
may be miftaken for the antecedent. 

u Noti ego euin cum fumrr.is viris comparo, f&d Cmil- 
lktitirri Deo judico, hie qui facia't."' 

.Here ewn is the antecedent to $Uf 9 but that does r ot 
appear fo diltinctly as it ought, not only becaufe there 
are very improperly two perfonal verbs, two whole fen* 
tences, between this relative and its antecedent ; but alib : 
becaufe, as qui now frauds, Deo may be erronecufly tak: n' 
for the antecedent, and no unmeaning fentence be made' 
of it. Therefore Cicero, whofe words thefc are, did net' 
fo arrange them. But, unwilling by the interpofition of - 



i9# 



AN INTRODUCTION TO 



hac qui facial, where the relative lies, to feparate eum, 
which is the antecedent, from thofe terms of honour, 
cum fumm'is iiris ccmparo, fed fimiUimum Deo judico, with 
which Julius Ccefar, the perfon meant by eum, was to he 
complimented, and at the' fame time cautious to avoid 
that ambiguity with which the above condemned por- 
tion of qui would be attendedj he marihalled his words 
after this manner ; 

" Hsec qui faciat,.non ego eum cum fummis viris com- 
paro, fed fimillimum Deo fadSc©.* 

The natural polkion of the relative is after the ante- 
cedent, certainly. But here a political reafon excluding 
qui from the place next after cum, there remained but 
this alternative, viz. to place qui ft ill after its antece- 
dent, but at fuch a dirt an ce' as to create an ambiguity ; 
cr elfe to fet it before its antecedent, bringing it as near 
as poftlble that way, contrary to the ufual form indeed, 
but without rxfktng the fenfe. Cicero preferred the lat- 
ter ; teaching us, that perfpicuity in language is of fo 
much importance, that fafhion, even rules themfelves, 
however elegant and ufeful on general occafions, muft 
yield, when a too fcrupulous obfervance of them would 
counteract or ohfcure the meaning of a difcoune. 

2. " Mea quidem fententia, paci femper eft confulen- 
dum. ,, 

This fmtence has in it no relative, and might, for 
ought the prefcnt rule has to do with it, be • indifferently 
expreiled as it % or, 

Paci mea quidem fententia femper eft cdnfukndem. 
| ' " " • Or, 

Mea quidem fententia femper eft. ccnfulendum paci. 

Semper eft confulendum paci mea. quidem fententia. 

Here for paci you have the choice of/four^pontions : 
it may be either the firft word, of the'laft ;'or it may he 
fet between fcttisrifcd and f viper, cv. between ccr 
and, mea. But ihould paci \>i an antecedent to a relative, . 
the poution will be no longer arbrit-ary ; but af tr paci,^ 
wherever it be placed, and as fc on after as pcffibleV mufti 
come the relative and its adjuncl. Accordingly, Cicero 
wrote thus. 



THE MAKING QJJj LATIN. i 9l > 

" Mea quidem. fimtentiu, pfl(}, qua:,n\h}l LaLlurafit hi/idi- 
arum, Temper eft cbiifulenduwu" 

Now paci the antecedent, anc[. ggg the relative, are 
hand' in hand, as they ought to be ; and the relation be- 
tween them is evident. But fuppofe it had' been tr \f 

" Paci, mea quidem fententia, qua:, nihil, habitura. 'fit 
infidi'ariim, femper eft c©nluien9um/ Dr, 

" Paci Temper eil confulendum, mea quidem fenten- 
tia, quas nihil habitura fit in^diarum. ,, Or, 

" Mea quidem fententia, quae, nihil habitura. fit iniidi- 
arum, paci femper eft confulendum." 

In each of thefe three p.ofitions, fxitcntia< ajTumes the/ 
appearance of, and may_.be taken ^of, the antecedent, as, 
well as pad. Hence the neceiiky, of the. r.ule„ ; and thej 
impropriety of placing between the antecedent and the. 
relative many words, or even a Angle, word, that may,, 
bear the appearance of the former. 

To this rule there is no exception. For, as it is not, 
{aid, that the relative ihall always, follow the. anteccr 
dentj bnt that it fhould be as iieartojt. as. pofiible, and 
this with a view to perfpicuity ; I know not on what oc- 
caiion the contrary may he re qui Ike, other than to per- 
plex, one's language, and the mind, of him to whom the, 
difcourfe is made : but this, whether it be adopted in 
the pulpit, by the hiftorian, in the fenate-houfe, or at the 
bar, is the tricky of foil y^ the iubterfuge of a. knave in a 
bad caufe. 



MISCELLANEOUS RULES. 



Rule to, Advfrls^ 

H A ^VERBS^are placed belo:e, rather than aiier , 
XjL the words to which they belong. y> 

EXAMPLE. 

" Hoc tantum helium, tarn turpe^ tarn vetust.tamjat} dl- : 
vtjvm sfiKj[ufe; 'di^Hum,' T qfifi^ T »&?SI^ ^wiihyirihir* aut ab 



i&$ AN" INTRODUCTION TO 

omnibus imperatoribus uno anno, aut omnibus annis ab 
uno imperatcre confici poffe." Clc 

Obferve in this example, how tam is placed, not after, 
but before, turpe % and then again before vefui, and again 
tarn before late, and alfo tain late before divifum, and un- 
quam before arbitrarelur ; each before the word it modi- 
fies. 

EXCEPTION 

' When a particular emphafis lies on the adverb, and 
the idea which it is dellgned to raifeis very important, 
it may then potfibly be placed rather after than before 
the word to which it is attached, according to what has 
been before inculcated, under the exceptions to the fixth 
rule, of placing thofe words lad, or near to the cadence, 
by which words it is intended that the perfon addreiled 
fhall be moil affected. There alfo we meet with that 
admirable inftance of this exception, taken from Cicero, 
and fa much commended by Quinctiltan ; viz. 

" Ut tibi neceiTe eifet in confpectu Fopuli Rcmani 
i)o mc re p9jlttdi&" 

The great importance of this adverb fojlrul'ie has been 
already explained j it is therefore fufticient to repeat 
here, that becaufe of its importance it is placed after the 
verb Vomersc 

" LibertaGque .recurrentes accepta per-annos 

u Luft amdb'ditcr : donee jam faevus, See." Hor. 

The petition of amab'rilier after lufit is fortunately con- 
trived to fet oil die innocent and pleaiant raillery of the 
old Fuftic bards in their convivial amufements, and 
greatly ftrengthtns the antithefis between that harmlcfs 
festivity and the iafolent affectation of wit, of which Ho- 
race complains, and which in time was carried to fuch 
an indecent height of licentioufnefs and rancour, that 
A. U. C. 302, U was made a capital offence to. fina or 
cempofe any defamatory verfes. 



Rule ir. Adverbs* . 

u A DVERBS are in general placed immediately bc- 
jLX. fore the words to which they belong ; no ex- 
traneous words coming between.'* 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. tfi 



FXAMPLKS. 



" Hoc tantuni pellum, tarn turpe, tain vetus, tarn late du 
vifum atque difperfum, qure tmquam'a'rFitraretur y &fi*" Cic. 

The adverbs / v /,v/, fam y .tam faff* ;md wguatn, come not 
only before, hut n/ .icJiately before, the words modified 
by them. 



FX CATION. 

When the word, to which the adverb belongs, has 
another word or words depending gu it ; fucb other words 
are not extraneous, and' ought to come next before the 
word which governs them, the adverb being placed firft 
of -all. 

Quae civitas antea unquam fait, non dico Athenien- 
fium, quae fatis late quondam mare tennijjc dieitur ; -non 
Carthaginienfmm, qui permuliiri claffe maritimifque rfe- 
hus valuer unt ; non Rhodiorum ; quorum ■ u (que ad nof~ 
tram memoriam difciplina navi-lis et gloria remanfit : 
quae civitas antea unquam tarn tenuis, quae tarn parva infu- 
Idfuit, quae non portus fuos et agros, et aliquam. partem 
regionis atque orae maritime per fe ipfa defnderet r" Cic*.. 

Here both the rule and the exception are exemplified; 
feveral times : Let us obferve how. 

Antea and unquam belong to fuit, and are fet immedi- 
ately before it, there being no words depending on fuit 
to intervene. On the like account non is let immediately 
"before duo. 

The adverbs fatis, late, quondam, are all attached to the 
verb tenu'iffe, and come before it,' but not immediately be- 
fore, becaufe of mare, which,. h~ing governed of tenu'J}\ 
mud therefore come between. So permultwn is fet be- 
fore valuerunt, but not immediately before it, becaufe of 
clqj/l m-ir'itjmfque rebus ; which words being governed by 
vdluermit mult themfelves have fcfts immediate prece- 
dence. Antea unquam, farther on, belong to fuit, and are 
placed before it, but not immediately before, becaufe 
that ■ pofltion re'ongs to tarn tenuis, fcfig, which words de- 
pend on fuit, and therefore clajm the irumediate prece* 
deuce. 



i6i AN INTRODUCTION* Ttf 

Tarn comes immediately before tenuis to which it be- 
longs, and again tarn immediately before parva, becaufe 
there are no words depending on tenuis and parva to in- 
tervene. 

In the latter part of this example (qu<z non partus, Iffc^J 
the adverb non belongs to the verb deftnderet, and is ac- 
cordingly placed before it, but not immediately before 
it ; there are fourteen words between ; which words be- 
ing all governed of, or ItricUy connected with, defenders^ 
muit come nearer to it than a lets important particle \ 
and therefore, according to the exception, that particle, 
the adverb non, mint fraud at a -greater diftance. / 

From this poiition of non with defendcrct, fee the im- 
portance of the tenth rule, which rehires that adverbs 
be placed before the words they modify, rather than af- 
ter. Rather than violate that rule, by putting an ad- 
verb after the. word to which it belongs; and at the 
fame time to abide by what the exception to this eleventh 
• rule directs, Cicero would put non before defenderet, 
though at the diitance of fourteen words. . So delicate,, 
fo ferupulous, is the genius of the Latin tongue. 



Rule t2. 

m IGITUR, Qutem, en'nn, etiam, are very feldom placed 
fir ft .in a claufe or fentence. The enclitics que, ne* 
wc, are never placed firit/' 

EXAMPLES. 

Igitur. 

i. " Quod igft&r in caufa qirarendum eft, &c.'*' Clc* 
2. " Nee promiiia igitur fervanda funt ea, quae fun t ' 
iis, quibus promiferis, inutilia. ,> Id, ' « - 

Salluft frequently fets igitur firft in a fentence, as, 
" Igitur confiimato animo, Slc." But in this he is not 
to be imitated, igitur being very feldom fo placed by 
other writers. Pareus, in his Lexicon Criticum, fays ol 
this particle, Elegantcr in media oratione coUncatur. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 



203 



Autem. 

The fame Parens fays of autem, Venufte cclhcatur in me- 
dia fententia ; and cites this inftance from Terence, 
*' Quid tn autem, afme, hie aufcultas ?" 

IZnlm. 

" Neqne emm &os folos, &c." Clc. 

TLnim poft duas duiiones fcepe collocatur, fays Parens, and 
produces thefe examples from Cicero ; " Mihi ante eulm." 
" Drufia cupit enlm vendere." Inanimum e/l enlm, &c/ 3 

Efiam. 

1. J 1 Nondum etlctm. dixi, quae volui." 7"Vr. 

2. " At juvenis -nihil etiam fequius fufpicatus. ApuL 

'git. 

" Alcandrumjw^-Halium^^, Noemona^, Pritanin- 
quer Gv. . 

• This is not ne the negative for nov, net/, neudam, Ssfa 
but the enclitic for rionne ? annon ? utriim P fef& an inter- 
rogative», and generally an affirmative. 

i. Datun/<? ilia Pamphilo hodie nupturn ? Ter. 

2. -Adeo;?' me ignavum putas ? Id. Adeon y for adeone. 

3. Juftitise/z*? prius miror, belli/2<? laborum •? F/Vf. . 

,. Si quis in adverfum rapiat cafufw, Deufiv. Id. 

Thus que, ne, <ve, are always -attached to a preceding 
word, as. if a part of the fame, and are even uttered as 
fuch ; as, Deiifvc, not Deus ve. 



Rule 13. 

« ^l^AMEN is very often and elegantly placed after 
•*■ the firft, fecond or third WGrd of the claufe in 

which it (lands. " 

Tamen elegant er in fuie fententia collacatur. Par em* 

EXAMPLES. 

l. Ineipiam tamen. TibulL 



04 AN INTRODUCTION TQ 

2. Tu moriere tamen. Proptvt* 

3. Tu, ii tuis blanditiis tamen. Cjc. 

EXCEPTION. 

Tamen more frequently occurs fir ft in a fentence than 
igitur, autem, emm and etia?j*'d&-$ for which reafon it is 
here fpoken of apart. And incjeed, though its ufual po- 
iition is as the .rule fays, yet, when the claufe, of which 
tamen is a member, is preceded by feme weighty circum- 
ftancc, and does itfelf alfo advance Something as weigh- 
ty, fomething, which, by being equally true, equally im- 
portant, &c. may countervail 1 the other ; in ihort, when 
tamen is ufed id aver any thing, very ftrongly, cum ajfebe- 
ret. valdc, then it acquires- a peculiar force by being fet 
firft, (b exciting and arrefting the attention to what fol- 
lows. Of this here are three examples from Cicero. 

1. " Tametfi mihi nihil fuit optatius, qiiam' ut pri- 
mum abs te ipfo, deinde a ceteris omnibus, quam gratif- 
fimus erga te efte cognofcerer ; tamen afflcior fummo do- 
lore," ejuimodi tempora poft tuarn profectionem confecu- 
ta e/Tc, ut et meam, et caeterorum erga te fidem et bene- 
volentiam abfens experiere." Cic. Ep. ad Jamil. 1,5. 

2. " Nam etfi minore in re violatur tua 1 dignitas, 
quarri mea falus afflict a fit ; tamea[ eft tanta' fimilitudo, 
ut fperem te.mihi ignoicere, ft ea. non timuerim, quos ne 
tu quidem unquam timenda duxifti." Ep. ad /ami/. I, 
6. 

3. " Quod me quodammo : do:nlo'lli brachio de 'Pdm- 
pe'ii familiaritate ! objurgas : nolim ita exiftimes, me mei 
praefuiii caufa cum illo conjunctum eile, &c. — —fed ut 
ille effet melior, et aliquid de populari levitate depone- 
ret ; quern, &c. — Quid* fi etiam Ccsfarem, cujus nunc 
venti valde funt fecundi, reddo meliorem ? Quinetiam, 
fi mihi nemo invideret ; fi ' omfies, ut erat ?:quum, fave* 
rent \ tamen non minus eiiot probanda medicina, qUJE ia- 
naret vitiofas partes reipublicse, /^uam qua? exietaret." 
Ep. ad Ait. 2, 1. 



Rule 14. 

CONNECTED words ihould go together; tfcit 
is, they may not be feparated from each other by 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 205 

words that arc extraneous, and have no relation to 
them." 

There is nothing in this rule contrary to what has 
been advanced in foregoing ones ; where, efpecially un- 
der the third, fourth,' and hxth, it appeared, that words 
immediately connected, as the verb and nominative cafe, 
the word governed and that which governs it, &c. may 
be feparat.ed from each other fo far as to admit whole 
claufes between them ; for thefe words thus interpofed 
are every one of them connected with one another, and 
with thofe between which they lie ; fo that if we exa- 
mine the longed well-written period, it will be found 
that, in the exprefs terms of this rule, connected words 
go together, having not one extraneous word between 
them. 

The intent of this rule is, to fet a guard againft that 
inartificial mixture and rude jumble of words, which 
boys are apt to fall into from a laudable ambition of 
writing freely. They find, that in the Latin tongue 
words are ieldom confined to the natural order, and 
therefore they fet about a new one ; but, unacquainted 
with the laws of composition, they have no method ; and 
having no method, they have recourfe to conjecture, 
their prime ccunfellor, or to chance, the general one, for 
the manner in which they are to write. Hence what is 
thus written is like a mafs of any other things, which 
chance might throw together, fragofa et interrupta oratio, 
as Quinclilian would call it, cempofed of words gather- 
ed well enough from the dictionary, and in which there 
may not be what is commonly called falfe Latin, but in 
the contexture fo confufed and ciefuitory, that the natu- 
ral order would be ten times better. 

But for all this, the learner is (till to quit the natural 
order, in which the beauties of the Roman tongue can 
feldom be difplayed. Only let him know the bounds 
which he may not pafs. Let him always bear in mind 
Hire general caution, that though words which are con- 
nected may not be always contiguous, yet neither does 
good coiuppfkion allow them to be feparated from each 
other by words which among them have neither relation 
;acr ftgniucaney, :uvd therefore cu^hi: to have no place. 



*c6 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

EXAMPLES. 

The pofition of fcrih am is unfortunate and faulty ia 
this expreihon of Horace ; 
" Quiiquis erit vitz:,fcribam, color." Sat. 2, *. 

Scribam forms no parentheiis hcr,e ; nor has it any con- 
nection either by government or concord with either of 
the words between which it (lands : between them there- 
fore it (hould have no place, any more than between 
quifquis and erit. In the accuracy of good language its 
place is after color ; or, if the whole context would ad- 
yut of it, before quifquis. Thus again, in the fame fatire, 
judice is out of its place in 

" " Sed ,bona fi quis 

" Judiee condiderii, laudatur Caefare." 
It ihoulditand in the claufe with laudatur, no doubt. 
Ninus enlarged his empire as far as the borders of Lybia. 
" Ninus Lybia protulit imperium ufque ad terminos." 
Here the Latin is improperly expreffed. 7,^/^ has no 
fort of connection with either .of the words between 
which it Hands, nor .with any other word to them rela- 
ted : to that Lybia there is perfectly extraneous, and de- 
mands another .pofition. To know its proper place, 
confider where its affinity lies. It is a genitive cafe, go- 
verned of terminos ; therefore near terminos it mull fland, i 
at kriil fo near as to ihew the connection ; thus, 

Ninus protulit imperium ufqu? ad tcn.tinos Lybia. Or, 
Ninus ufqu 1 ad terminos Lyli<e imperium protulit. Or, 
Ufque ad terminos .Lybia 1 Ninus imperium protulit. Or, 
Ninus ad Lybia ufque ier mines protidit imperium. 
Now what has been faid of Lybia, between Ninus and 
.protulit, would be true of ufque, and of ad, and of termi- 
nos, in that pofition, but not of imperium, becauie imperi- 
um. would not be extraneous there, being connected with 
one of thofe words, namely, protulit : nor even againit 
Lybia in that petition would this objection lie, if Lybia 
had been governed of imperium inftead oj terminos ; for 
then it would be Ninus enlarged the empire of Lybia, and 
the circumftances of pofition would change with the 
fenfe. 

.Cut thefe irregularities are lefs likely to happen in 
flioil fentences than in thofe of two or more claufes ; 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 207 

w*here, from a neglect of punctuation, boys frequentlf 
fct in one claufe words which ought to be in another. 
By one word thus mifplaced, two claufes at lcaft arc 
fpoiled, one overcharged, the other mutilated. Let lie 
fee this exemplified. 

Of all connexions ', none is mire excellent, none more flrong, 
than when good men, alike in manners, are attached to each 
other. 

Omnium focictatttm nulla pr#Jla?:tior ejl nulla quam firmior 
cum viri moribus boni funiles funt familiar it ate conjunct}. 

Suppofe a fchool-hoy, unacquainted with the prefent 
rule, to produce this as an evening exercife, without a- 
ny punctuation, and the order of words fo broken as to 
be almoft unintelligible. # 

In this exercife there is a great perplexity, and it ari- 
fes entirely from the fai'fe pofition of only two words, 
quam and boni : quam is put in the fecond claufe, where- 
as it ought to be in the third ; and boni, which belongs 
like wife to the third claufe, is ftt in the fourth. We will 
reduce this inflance into proper order. 

Omnium focietatum nulla praftantior eft, nulla firmior, quam 
cum viri boni, moribus fimiles, funt familiarit ate conjuntli. 

i£ w r e inquire into the ufe of quam and boni, we fhall 
know, that they are now in their right pofition. 

Quam, than, is a comparative conjunction, and can be 
of no ufe, but w^here it ferves to couple the two members 
of a fentence, between which a comparifon is made. — 
The comparifon here is between the friendfhip of good 
men and that of others, that is, between omnium s. n. p. e. 
n. firmior on one hand, and cum viri boni, &c. on the 
other ; here therefore between firmior and cum, and here 
only, is quam to do its office. 

In like manner the adjective boni can have no place in 
the fourth claufe, where it has no connexion. It agrees 
with the fubftantive viri in the third claufe, and there k 
mull be. 

Quinctilian, in his chapter de Compcfitione, frequently 
complains of this incondite language. He fays, of all 
orders the natural is the bed, when the words will fo 
follow one another, and run into a good cadence ; and 
greatly condemns, thofe breaches and improper trairf- 



2oS AN INTRODUCTION TO 

pofitions by winch the difcourfe is mutilated, and the 
fenfe loft ; and againft which this prefent rule is de- 
figned to be a bar, as it effectually will be, if die learner 
will be mindful of it, and pay due attention to the dif- 
ferent points of punctuation, efpecially thefe within the 
period. 



Rule 15. 



" r I ^ HE cadence, or concluding part of a claufe or 
X fentence, fhouid very feldom conftft cf mono- 
fyllables." 

EXAMPLES. 

Cicero, which is as much as to fay, the whole fchool 
of Roman eloo i uence, removed monofyllables as far 
back as could be from the cadence ; in general, I mean, 
and as far back as the ufe and import cf fuch words 
would allow. To fee this rule exemplified, it might be 
enough to infpect. any claiTic page ; yet here are a few 
inftances of the manner in which Cicero uied to repel 
monofyllables from the cadence, merely as being words 
of that defcription : 

1. " Sed fi lib manifeftce audacise, fi impendens," &c. 
Scd and Ji naturally come foremoft here, and are 

therefore no examples of the rule : but vis ft and s before 
manifefltf as being a word of one fy liable ; elfe,,by R. 2, 
it would probably have had its place after audacia. 

2. " His lachrymis non movetur Milcr; eft quodam 
incredibili robore animi : exilium rbi etfe putat, ubi vir- 
tuti non fit locus : — ; — -fit hie ea mente.," &c. 

We have already feen with what propriety oblique 
cafes come forcmoft, and finite verbs laft, in a fentence-; 
but here the poiition is quite contrary, becaufe bfae 
verbs chance to be monofyllables. 

3. "Nee tamfum demens." 

4. " Non eft humano confilio." 

5. H Stet hac urls prasclara." 

6. " Centeiima lux ejl hac ab interim Publii Clodii.'' 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 209 

How ftudioufly in the fixth example are the three 
monofyllablcs lux eft hac, like fmall fragments cf a rock 
not fit for corner ftones, immured, as it were, in the 
midit of the period ! 

7. "Nullius tantum eft flumen ingenii. ,, 

8. " Quorum facinus eft commune, cur non ft eorum 
praida communis i" 

9. " Quihus ego ducihus in hanc fpem fententiam- 
quefum ingre^us." 

10. " At vero hujus gloria, C. C.a?far, quam er paulo 
ante atieptusw" 

1 1. " Et quidquid eft profpere gefhum. 7 ' 

12. " O prxclarum ill am eloqUentiam tuam, cum e$ 
nudus concionatus V* 

In forming verbs of prdlive terminations in Latin, 
the auxiliary, when ufed, is commonly placed after thr 
participial, to which it is attached, as, amatus eftcm, auditi 
erant ; but here, in the four la ft examples, Cicero would 
have the auxiliary come firfl:, that the polyfyllable 
might incline, as much as might be, to the cadence, 
and the mo nofy liable recede. In this manner mail we 
generally difpofe of other auxiliaries of this fort, Jitnty 
Jtm,JtSy 5fc. fetting them before their correfp 011 dent par- 
ticipials, perhaps at the diftance of two or three wordy; 
as, M ej paulo ante adeptus? in Cicero. 

But why fhould this be r 

The cadence, we have often obferved, is the moft im- 
portant part of all the period, and, to give it due 
weight, care muft be had to make it foft, gradual and 
eafy, ib that the perfon addrelfed may . ha\c time to con 
it over, even while lie hears it. But this can never be 
while the fenfe is pent up, or rather rapt away, in terms 
that «pay be uttered in an inftant, by a fingie eirort of 
the voice, as monofyilables are. The gradatory and 
gently-expiring foands of the organ are much more af- 
fecting, and delightful to be heard, than -exploilons of 
gun-powder ; which latter one may hear, but cannot 
iiften to ; which do not charm, but ihock, more even . 
than the folemn majefty of thunder ; and which will 
froreh indeed thofe that are near, but diffufe no glowing 
kindly heat. Such in Isn&Uage is the difference befrfreen 

T 2 



2io AN INTRODUCTION TO 

a flowing cadence, and that which is violent and hafty. 
To the .former, one may Men, as well as hear it : by 
courting the ear, it captivates the mind : the fenfe is 
nourimed up by a due fupply of fuel ; and the ideas, thus 
conveyed, kindling as they go, do more eaf ly infjnuate 
themfelves into the underftanding. Bat by the latter, 
fomethmg more being looked for, the expe&ation is 
mocked, whereas it ought to be gratified : with an af- 
fe.clation of vehemence, it porTerlcs no energy ; becaufc 
the fenfe is compreifed and mutilated, by being forced 
into too narrow a compafs, by being bound up and 
(hackled in that part of the period, in which, beyond 
every other part, it ought to have lead reftr.i&ion, and 
to come forth in fulneis of exprefiion. 

Words, beautifvilly (lyled -by Homer, "winded words, '' 
are the vehicles of thought : if they are weak, if they 
are not well Hedged, the fenfe is either loft in callage. 
or but partially conveyed. Hence, when the cadence, 
compofed of ihort words, is too precipitate ; when the 
period breaks fuddenly away, and maps, as it were, in a 
moment ; then the fenfe is not brought thoroughly home, 
but falls, hi vfi'iiulo, at the threfhold, and, having fwoon- 
cd there, it has no ftrength to reach the interior apart- 
ments, the recedes of the m'nd. 

Longinus, feet. 41, fays, that fhort and precipitate 
meafares do more than any thing debn^e the fnblime : 
that their cadence is forever the fame, and therefore e> • 
tremely diiagrecable ; and that when periods are patch- 
ed and (Kidded up .with words of fhort and few fy liables, 
they are always derotute of grandeur. . 

Blemiihes of this kind are to be round even in C 
ro ; for even in Cicero blemiihes they a£e. " Confula- 
tum peteres, &:o— per municipia, coloniafque Calnce, a 
quo nos turn, cum, tjfe." Phiih. 2. And again, " A Mar-. 
C) Antonio, quod fjs -non r/r, rex Romse conftitueretUK ' 
Ibid. The cadence here is excellent \ but that v..' 
claufe, quod fas nou fl, rnaile up of menofyllablcs, 
none of that deliberate gravity,, which became him, who 
was pleading before the Conicript Fathers. . Lux, ope\-i 
longo fas cjl clrtpere fomniua : (Hor.) and it is more pro- 
fitable, as well as pleating, to admire the excellent' i<, 
a good man, than to carp at his failings. 



THE MAKING, OF LATIN, 

EXCEPT LO N S . 

Though monofy liable s in general are to be ei 
from the cadence, yet there arc occaiions on which 
period may end abruptly* and then mono!) ilabks ill 
cadence are to be preferred. 

i. When the fubjeet is any thing tl rat happened Sud- 
denly, or- very fpeedily. 

2. When indignation is cxpremkl. 

3. When the Tubjecl is ' any tiling futile or contemp- 
tible. 

Ail this, Taubmann, in his excellent commentary on 
Virgil, has thus exemplified, from that divine poet, and 
fix m Horace, in JEn. 5, .v. 4-8-1. 

Exf& . 1 . ) " S ternitur , eiatiim i fq u e t re n; e n s \ > rb c : . 1 
bit humi hot. 

" Incomparabilis hie verms eft ; quern Servius inco- 
gitatiflime (modb Servii id eft feholion) pemriftfhl vo- 
cat, quod terminatur mcnofyllabo. Uirum enim ma- 
lls ? Huncce, an, 

" Sternitur, exanhntfque tremens has corruk 'u r '.iu 

" Ita, Mn. 1. 

Excep. 1.) " Dat latus : infequitur cumulo praerrjptus 
aqua: m6ns\ 
Potuiffet lie, 

Dut latus : inftqUrtur tutpidls mom inch us walls. 

" Verum, ut coriuit taurus ; ut connuxit in uimm 
montem mare ; ita corruit ver'Yis in mohofyjlabum, co- 
pin multarum fyllabarum in imam fyllabam coacta, Sicut 
et in illo, iEn. 2.. 

Excep. I.) " Kuil OEeafiO hex* 

Item, JEn. 4. 

Excep. 2.) " En ! hrec promiffa fides ejl V y 

Concerning this inRance of Excep. 2. the commenta- 
tor fays, " Quid illo*ac:i*us ?" and here, i. ei ^Ln. 5, aoi^ 

" Nihil enimaptius iiidisriationi, qoam oratio deiincns 
in monofyllabum. Vel evolve Demorthcnis orationcs. 
Horatius quoque, ' quum c rnagnis crcptis futile poema 
exiturum flora acharetur, ex prolixis vocibus ednxit mp- 
nolyllabum \ ' • 

Excep.' 1.) " Parturient momes, .nnfcetur. ridicuftjs 
mus, 



,m AN INTRODUCTION TO 

M Vidcatur Scalfg. 1. 4, c. 48, ct J. Douza pnecidan. 
in Tihull. c. 9, item Erythncus, et Corn. Valerius, Lap- 
lii doclor." 

4. F«rar, whijc it agitates the mind, convulfes alio the 
body, throws it into an univerfal tremor, and robs one 
of his breath, i'o that h' even pants for want of it. — 
Fear, L fay, thus afle&ing'the fpeater, is naturally ex- 
prefled in ihort and broken terms. When the enraged 
father in the play exclaims, " Jtge Pamphllc ; ext> Pam- 
pbtle ; ecautd tc pudct'? 1 ' the ion, alarmed by that angry 
fummons, haitily inquires, " Qu'u me voh ?" and then, 
abafhed by the unexpected appearance and die frowns of 
his dread parent, he fearfully exclaims, " Peril i paler 
eft:' Tar. Amir. 

On mch occasions, next to monofyllables, which do 
not always occur, words of few fyllables may be prefer- 
red, and Kkcwife brachyfallables, i. e. words of fyllables 
ihort in quantity. After this fort, the poet, from whole 
works may be inilanced every thing that, is beautiful, re- 
prefents Jupiter difpatching Mercury in all haile to Car- 
thage : 

" Vadc Age, ?iate, <voca Ztphyros, ct Iqbere penms :' % 
and thus Queen Dido in a frenzy ; when Hie bids her 
people to purfue the treacherous lover, and deitr-oy bis 
fleet : 



/A . 



•* ; FerU ciujiammas ; date vela; hnpeuite remos" 
and immediately the cHftraeted Princefs feems all at once 
to recollect ami correct herfelf ;, 

" ^uid hjquor ; aui ubi jum P" 
and thus in tho 9th ifin. v. 37, Caicus exclaims to the 
Trojans in Italy, fr»m the rampart of their beleaguered 
town, when he fees» the enemy approaching, 

M Fertt clit fcrrwii, dah tela, Jcaiuillc muros. 

" Bojils adtjt, yajr 

Anger, as we have feem though it fwells itfelf, is not- 
withstanding well eapreifed in ihort and hafly terms. 

" Non j'eram, nan £atiar> non Jinam" fays the Roman 
Confiil (Cic.) to the traiterous Catiline. And elfe where 
to the object of his refentment, M Tu ixro guts es ?" As 
Horace fays, " Ira furor brc'vls eft?* anger is madnefc 
white it laits ; and nudnefs vents itfelf in hafty mood. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 213 

5* When in Cicero, wr.hout any regard to the import 
of words, a clailfe or fentence ends with a mono.iyliable, 
there is then generally reined paid to tiie mcaiure of the 
cadence : for that monosyllable, much oftener I 
otherwife, forms with the preceding ly liable either a fy- 
nalepha, or an ecthliplis, or the foot iambus. The fa 
may be remarked in other polke writers', but I quote 
Cicero as the ium of all. 

. I. 

SYNAL7.PHA. 

" Quo* nota domefticx turpituJinis non inufta vitas 
tua eft P Jf 

" Quoties jam tibi extorta eft ilea iila de manibus? 
" Quoties vero excidit cafu aliquo, et tlatfa eft P" 
" Jacet ille nunc, proftratufooe <j}. ,y 
" Qux cxdes per hoice annos line illo /aSa eft ?" 

II. 

ECTHLIPSIS. 

**. Intus inclufum periculum eft. 

" Intus elt hoi.tis ; cum luxuria nobis, cum amentia, 
cum fcelere cefidndum efl. 

" Totum hoc quantumcunque eft, quod certe main- 
mum ej} } totum eft, inquam, tuurn." 

III. 

IAMBUS." 

** Jacet tile nunc" 

" Quoties confulem in.terficere conatus es. ?'[ 
" Adventu tuo ifta fubiellia w <\cw<\ fatla jutd.^ 
M Nullum iiagitumy^ te\" 

fj Repente piaaer opinionem omnium confffits eft" 
In this iambic cadence the long and full f ja'nd of the 
laft fyllable in a, manner abiorbs and fwailsws up th.i 
of the fyllable preceding, which, being paiiedVcry light- 
ly over, dies upon the ear : the laic fyllable then be- 
comes to clofely attached even to the penultmia of the 
word preceding, as in utterance almoil.to coalefce with 
it, and fo eludes that objection which 'from the p relent 
rule would otherwife lie again ft It, 



2i 4 AN INTRODUCTION TO' 

In like manner, and much more, is a monosyllabic hi 
r.he cadence fattened, when attracted -to the foregoing 
word by fynalcpha or eclhlipus ; that is, if we might 
ipeak new, as it is reafonable to fuppofe the Latins did 
occasionally;, uttering the latter word as if it were really 
a part of the former ; juft as in Engliih we occafionaily 
fay, when at the fame time we might or might not write, 
JbaiCt tor Jhedl not, he's for he is, you're for you are, cSfc. 
I fay occafionally, not always, but merely to avoid any 
extraordinary harihnefs ; as, " Qu« cardes per hofce an- 
nos fine illo fa&(ft, 6r fa^a[/}? ,y " Cum fcelere «r- 
iand'eji, oi ' pen Umdum 'Jt ;" for.fo we frequently find it 
actually wrkten ; " Scelus, inquam, fagunfftf* Plaut. 
MojhlL et alibi pajjim. Nay, the final s, and the vowel 
before it/ ufed very commonly to undergo the fame eli- 
iion ; ws, 

" 3ocrJ, fide lis, fuavis homo, facundu\ fuoque 
"Content* atque beatus, fcitus facunda loquens in 
" Tempore, commod\ et verborum vir paucorum." 

Enn* 
u Limina tectorum, et med? in penetralibus hoftem." 

** Inter fe coi/Te vir* et decernere fcrro." LL 

The common reading of thefe two lines in Virgil 
differs indeed from this, having medium m the fir ft, not 
med?, and in the fecond vires, not vir', cernere, not de- 
cernere. But Fierius, Servius, J. Louis (Ludovicus) de 
la Cerda, and Taubmann, though they do not abfolute- 
ly reject the common reading, yet all agree that many 
ancient copies juftify the other, nay, almoft all the an- 
cient copies ; and that Prifcianus, Aldus, Pimpontius, 
Scaliger, and others, approve of the other reading. 
Thus formerly was written omnilu' for omnibus, ejif for 
ejus, qu'fcjui J for quifquts. And thus, which is more in 
point, Lucretius, who yields to none in elegance of ex- 
preilion, frequently drops ,the letter ?#; as, " ' Equoru* 
duellica proles," and plainly mews that this eliiion might 
be occasionally ufed or not ; as in this verfe of his, 

— u u I — 'J o J — u oj- o o I — o o I — — 

" Corporum iffiblu* eft quoniam pretne're omnia deorfum." 
1 conjecture that the u alfo in officii mould be dropped. 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 215 

Than this, I know cf no other way to account for the 
frequent ufc which Cicero and other poiite men made 
of inch cadences as are here ipoken of; and which, 1111- 
leis read as I iuppoie they fomctimc s were, may be as 
harfh and inelegant as any ill formed cad :nce can be. 
The very term:,, Synalepha and E&hllpfs favour the fup- 
pofition, the former meahing riuti&io, i. e. a larding or 
cementing together, the letter eljffd, a cutting or jlriicing off; 
becauie by thefe figures a vowel, or a confbnant, or both 
at once, may be cut off, that two fyllabies may coalefce 
and become one. This is what Quinclilian has e::prcfs- 
ly taught us more than once. " Nam Synalxpha facit, 
ut ultimas iyllaboe pro una /orient ;" which he raid to 
ihew that the cadence of this period, Nam ubi libido doini- 
natur, imioceniia: leve pr<zfidiuni eft, is a double anapeit, 

leve pre fid? eft. The word foneni here ffiews how the 
rhetotician himfelf read. Elfewhere he lays, " Nam et 
coeuntes liters, quae Synalarphe dicitur, etiam leniorem 
faciunt orationem, quam li omnia verba fuo fine cludan- 
tun" On which Turnebius thus comments, " Apparet 
ex hoc loco, olim Latinos, more Graeorum, admiiiffe a- 
poftrophen, ut cum vocalis a vocali exciperetur. Id au- 
tem cum lit, dictio non clauditur fuo fine : i'cd tcrmina- 
tur initio fequcntis." Again fays Quinctiiian, "Atqiri 
eadem ilia letera w, quoties ultima eit, et vocalcm verbi 
fequentis ita contingit, ut in earn tranlire point, et-i&m L li 
fcribitur, tamen parum exprimitur, &c." To •wTiicJl 
Afcenfius adds, in his comment, " Antiqui codices, 
Plautini prseiertim, m ne fcriptum quidem habent ;- icd 
pro nmltum e/l, mult 9 e/l, aut muhu eft*'* 

The young fcholar will not be offended at this long 
account of the nature of Syaalepha or EcYlilipiis (the 
iame thing.) It all tends to lhew the importance of the 
fifteenth rule, and pf this fifth exception to it. 



1 



Poftfcript to Rule ij% 

N this rule we have confidered -the cadence as il -con- 
fined to theiaft fvllahle onlv. -We will now -take it 



ai6 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

in a larger view, as compriiing feveral, even io many as 
the laft lix fyllabics of a period. 

Meafurjng the full cadence, we may include the laft 
three feet, if they be diflyllablcs ; the laft two, if tri- 
fvliables. or a trii) liable, and a diifyllable ; or we may 
regard the lad foot only,, if it be a triiy liable ; or if a 
mixed and compound foot. According to which, this 
Poftfcript w ill exhibit, in various fcales, «compofed of 
many diiferent meafures, a large number of cadences, 
which, on the authority chiefly of Cicero and Quinclilian, 
the learner is exhorted to imitate occafionally in his own 
writings. Not that. he is to think himfelf confined fole- 
ly to thefe cadences, as if thefe were the only good ones, 
and compriied ail the harmony of the Latin tongue. 
Thefe are but a fpecimen (fuch however as the greatefl 
mailers have recommended) nor is it meant, that he 
who writes mull be forever weighing and meafuring his 
Miles, in doing which whoever is wholly occupied, he 
cannot attend to what is (till moft important, good fenfe. 
A good writer will obferve the conduct of a fkilful 
horfeman, who always keeps the reins in his hand, and 
is always on his guard ; but he does not hold his horfe 
lorever on the menage ; nor is he continually checking, 
directing, and over-ruling him, which would infallibly 
break his courie, and probably bring him down. 



A SPECIMEN OF CADENCES 

Far Lathi Copipofitlon^ approved qf and i\ commended ly Clare 
(.i.il Qtilfidiilan. 

E 

CADENCES OF THREE SYLLABLES. 
' }.. A Bacchic u ~ - 

2. A C relic or Ampbimacer — -o* — 

Of this foot Quinftilian fays, Crctkus ejl hiiiiis optimise 
<*t cloufulis. In a cadence he thus exemplifies it from Ci- 
cero, " In confpcc~tu Populi Romani vomere pofir'hAt" 
Pojlrldie here is a triiyllable. 

3. A PaJimlacchlc or Aailiacchk — - o 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 217 

The Lift fyllable being common, this may, if we pleafe, 
Ue (liled a Moloffus, three long ; and may alfo be pre- 
ceded by another Moloifus, as we fhall fee presently. 

4. A Dafiyl - o o 

Cludet et Dafiylvsy fays Quinttilian, nift cum obfervafh 
ultima Creticum facit ; which is as much as to fay, that a 
Cretic or Amphimacer forms a better cadence than a 
Dactyl ; becaufe in general the rlnal fyllable ihould be 
really long, not merely pro longa. There is a vaft differ- 
ence, fays he, whether the concluding fyllable be really 
long,*oronly reckoned fo ; Aures tamen confulens mens, in- 
telligo multum referre, utrumne longa fit, qua clud'it, an pro lon- 

Quinelilian admits of a Cretic or Iambus before a, 
Dactyl, but no Spondee, and flill lefs a Choree. 

5. An Amph'ibrac b — o 

Quinclilian allows of this, dill infilling, however, tha. 
•>t.were better to have the -la ft fy'lkbb : long. He give% 
fuiffkps an instance ; but immediately adds, Si notimaluu 
HtiSf t/Jd Bacch'mm. 



II. 

CADENCES OF FOUR SYLLABLES. 

6. Pa on H^Uarfus 000 — 

Neither Quinclilian nor Cicero approves of this es- 
sence : but Arillotle, and his fcholars Theodectes and 
Theophraftus, commend it much ; and indeed Quinc- 
tilian allows it to be not without its refpectable admi- 
rers> when he expreffes his own difapprobation ; Non me 
capity vt a magnis vlris diftentlcim, Pa on, qui eft extribus brevi- 
bus et kjiga. 

7. Ep'iiritus Prhnus o 

We have here a vSpondee preceded by an Iambus, or 
a Moloims preceded by a fhort fyllable, a cadence, of 
.which Quinclilian thus expreffes his good opinion ; Ap- 
parel, Mdojfon quoque claufula convenire, dum habcat ex qitQ+ 
cunque *edc ante fe brevetn. 



218 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

8. Epitritus Tertius o - 

This is a Spondee before an Iambus. Sed et Spondeus 
Iambo recle pr&ponitur. QuincJ. And it may be obferved, 
that this cadence is the reverfe of the one preceding. 

. 9. A Choriambus — u o — - 

IC A Difpondee 

A cadence of two Spondees mould confift of three 
words or members : for otherwife it would conftitute in 
found as well as metre the latter part of a Spondaic 
Hexameter : but what founds well in verfe is no more 
than jargon in profe, the genuine muiic of which is far 
iuperior to that of verfe. In prole every kind of verfe 
ihould be avoided ; the jingle even of a hemiftic mould 
be excluded ; and therefore she condition above is im- 
pofed by Quinctilian on this cadence ; Duo Spondei non 
fere conjungi patiuntur ; qua in verfu quoque notabilis claufula 
eft ; nifi cum id fieri potefl ex tribus quafi membris. Then 
from an oration of Craffus he cites this example, " Gui- 
de perfugis noftris copias comparat is contra nos." 

11. Epiiritus Quart us 

We have here a Spondee followed by a Choree, a ca- 
dence commended and thus exemplified by Quinclilian, 
Nos poffemus : et, Rcmeinus fum. 

12. Dichoreus vel Ditrochaus o — o — 

This Dichoree, or Double Trochee, notwithstanding 
the general pofition, that the laft fyllable mould belong, 
forms that cadence which feems to have been more ad- 
mired formerly than any other. Nothing, fays Turne- 
bius, can be more mufical. Quinclilian informs us, that 
it was much ufed in Afia ; a fufficient 'proof of its being 
very foTt and delicate. Cicero gives this initance of it 
from Craffus, M Patris dictum iapiens temeritas flit com- 
proba^it ;"• and fays that the people were fo much de- 
lighted' with the clofe of this period, as even to fhout 
aloud with admiration ; an inftance, by the by, of re- 
publican gravity, and of what momentous obje&s may 
engage the attention of popular afTemblies ! 

13. Pa on Tertius « a - u 






THE MAKING OF LATIN. *r 9 

14. P*on Primus - o u o 

Inftances of this are given by Quin&ilian ; " St potero * 
Dixit Zw Cicero. 77 But fuch meafures, he is careful to 
inform us, are better adapted to the beginning of a pe- 
riod, than the cadence, where (in the cadence) fhort 
meafures do not well predominate, unlefs it be when the 
utterance ought to be quick and rapid, with but fhort 
refts or paufes between one period and another. 



III. 
CADENCES OF FIVE SYLLABLES. 

15. A Bacchic and Iambus o -o — r 

Or an Iambus before a Cretic. This, both by Cicero 
and Quinctilian, is much celebrated, under the appella- 
tion of Dochimus. The latter fays it hjlabilis in claufulis 
et fever us ; of courfe well adapted to fubjects of a grave 
and ferious nature, when the cadence ought to be fedate 
and folemn. But Cicero fays, the Dochimus is of fo 
notable a meafure, that it would be affectation to repeat 
it often. 

16. A Cretic. and a Spondee — u — 

As, " De quo nihil dicam, nifi depellendi criminis cavfa. 7 ' 
Cicero pro C-elio. This cadence is fofter when comprifed 
in one word, as " Archtplrata ; but more forcible when 
compofed of feveral members, as " Criminis caufa: 77 — 
" 2>uq nihil dicam. 77 The Spondee is vaftly well fuited 
to an utterance grave and flow. It was much ufed by 
Demofthenes, that folemn orator ; and anfwers in its 
general ufe to Adagio in mufic ; while the Moloffus, or 
rather the Difpondee, may correfpond with Adagio Ada- 
gio. 

17. A Tribrac and Spondee, 000 

Quin&ilian commends this much for its foftnefs, and 
Exemplifies it in "facilitates — tcmeritates. 77 

18. An Andpefl and Spondee 00- 

Quinclilian allows this, without giving it much com- 
mendation. Speaking of the final Spondee, he fays, 



22o AN INTRODUCTION T© 

Pote/l, etlamji minus bene y pr about Anapeeflus. His inftance 
is from Cicero pro C<eL " Muliere non folum nobili, 
verum etiam nota" In our editions of Cicero, it is fed 
etiam nota : the cadence, however, is ftill the fame, etiam 
nota. 

19. A Spondee and an A nap eft — — o o — 

This is the former reverfed ; and Quiictilian com- 
mends it for its foftnefs. Amafaftw — mtottior fet, prtcedintz 
Spondco vel Bacchio. 

20. A Spondee and a Bacchic o 

u Bacchius et cludlt> etjilijvtighur, " Venenum timeres," 
Vitat Choreum ; Spondeum autem amat ; ut non M Venena ti- 
meres ;" fed, u Virus timeres." A Choree fliould not 
precede a Bacchic in the clofe, of a period ; becauie fuch 
a juncture would form the cadence of an heroic verfe; 

— o o — — 

Venena timeres. But a Spondee preceding gives to the 
Bacchic more weight ; Virus tinures. Here Quinctilian 
teaches, that when any objection from quantity lies 
againfl a word, the meafure may be improved by the 
choice of fome fynonimous term, and the fenfe remain 
entire, nay more forcibly expreifed, as in his example of 
this cadence ; becaufe venena before tinures would not do 9 
he took the fynonyma virus. For this purpofe the no- 
vice iu the Latin tongue may have recourfe to his Gradus 
ad Parnaffum, which book I advife him to confuk when 
be is writing profe, as much, or more, than when he is 
writing verfe. The Gradus will aid him much in modu- 
lating his cadences, in felecting fynonyms, and now and 
then a convenient fober-fuited periphrafis, I fay, fober- 
fuited, like our own nightingale, tuneful, not gaudy. 

2 T . A Spondee and a Cretic o - 

Quinctilian condemns a Choree before a Cretic ; be- 
caufe fuch a juncture forms the cadence of an Iambic 
Pure. But he fays, lengthen the laft fyllable of the 
Choree, and you give it great weight ; ft plenum auclori- 
tatis. 

2 2. An Anapefl and Iambus w o - o — 
2 J. An Iambus and a Dufyl %t - — u u 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 221 

Child et Dafiyhis — : Habelit ante bene Creticum et lam- 
lam, Spondeum male, pejus Choreum. £>uincl. 



CADENCES OF SIX SYLLABLES. 

24. Tivo Crellcs — o — — u — 

Creticus ejl tmttis optlmits ti claufitlts* 7k d et fe ipfe 

fequirur, ' Scrvare quam plurimos,' 3ic : melius, qt*a?:i Cho- 
reo pracedente* {j^uinft* 

25. An Anapejl and a Crttlc q u — . —- o — 

In the paffage alluded to under the cadence next vl- 
fore this, Quinctilian, fpeaking of the Cretic in the elofc 
of a fentence, fays, Apparet verb, quam bene cum pr<zeedant y 
txel Anapizflus, vel ille, qui vtdetur fini apticr, Paoq. The 
difference between the Paeon here fpoken of, viz. the 
Fourth, and an Anapeft, before a Cretic, is, that the 
Pason has one fliort time more than the Anapeft ; thus, 

U <J u — — u — 

26. Two MoJoJl 

Here are three Spondees for a cadence, nct\vkh ft an clu- 
ing an objection has been made to two, unlefs comprif- 
ed in three members ; fcr though two Spondees form 
the clofe of an heroic verfe, it cannot be faid properly 
that three Spondees do ; becaufe,- in good heroics, 
whenever the fifth foot is a Spondee, the fourth is a 
Dactyl ; otherwife there is fuch a floth in the verfe, 2& 
to give it much the appearance, of profe (a circumftance 
which at once mews this cadence to be natural in profe) 
as in this of Virgil, En. 7 : 

Aut lev?s acre as lento du'uut argenio % 

in which verfe not only the three indeed, but the four 
laft feet, are Spondees, a metre by much too fallen for 
poetry. I have marked no other fuch verfe as this in 
Virgil ; and for this can oifer only the occafion of it as 
an apology. It feems to me, that the lento ducunt argent o 
here is well fpoken of the work in which the artifts of 
Atina, Tybur, and the other three towns, were fome or- 
U 2 



222 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

other engaged againft the impending war ; and that 
the verfc altogether is no bad representative of the 
yielding, yet not too lithe ibme, nature of filver. If any 
critic, more fevere, fhould fay to this, 

Turpia dcciplunt cacum vitia, aui etiam ipfa hdec 
Deletlant ; vcluti Balbinum polypus Agna — 
I will only add, what follows next in the fatiriit, (Hor.) 

Vellum in amicitia Jlc erraremus : 
and acknowledge my partiality. 

27. T<wq Anapejls o u — o o - 

Et Shiidem cptime eft fibi jundus Anap&ftus % fays Qu in Chi- 
lian, and gives this inftance of it, " Nam ubi libido do- 
minatur, innocentix* leve prafidium e/l" 

28. A Bacchic and an Anapejl o u o - 

The rhetorician having faid as above of the Anapeft, 
adds, that it acquires more foftnefs by having a Spon- 
dee or a Bacchic before it. MolUor jiei precedent* Sppndeo 
<vel Bacchio, ut,Ji mutes idem, " Leve innocentix praeiidium 
cil." 

29. Two Bac chics u ur — - 

Bacctius et cludit, et Jitijungitur j " Venenum timeres." 
QuincJ. 

30. A Molojfus and Antilacchic o 

Having faid as above of the Bacchic, Quin'ffiEan adds, 
Conirarius quoque qui eft, cludet [ntftji ultimam longam tj]e vor 
lumusj optimJque halei ante fe Molojfcn : ut, M Et fpinis ref- 
p erf am." 

From the parenthefis here appears QuindHlian's ape 
probation of the twenty-fixth cadence, viz. two Mo- 
loffi. 

31. A Bacchic and Antilacchic o — o 

This cadence is like wife commended by Quin<5Hlian, 
who, having faid of the Antibacchic, habebit ante fe Mo* 
loftbn, adds, aui Bacchiu-n ; and then follows this example, 
** Quod hie potejiy tigs pjftinus." 

32.. A Critic aud a DaSyl -* u 00 

Cludet et Daflylus, ntfi eum obfervath ultima Creticurh facity 
ut> Muliercula nixus in litore." Habebit ants bene Creti- 



THE MAKING OF LATIN 223 

Cinitf et Iambum, Sport Jcum male, pejus Choreum. Change the 
poiition of nlxus in this example, and the wh>le cadence 
will be illuftrated ; ** v ^-y 

11 Nix us Mulitrcula in lito-e" 



Rule 16. 



" O far as other rules and perfpicuity will allow, in 

lj the arrangement and choice of words, when the 
foregoing ends with a vowel, let the next begin with a 
confonant ; and vice verfd." 

By this rule, and the fix next following, the learner 
will be directed in the choice of his words, as well as in 
the pofition of them. 

Among Quinctilian's ftricturcs on compofition, one 
is, that by a concurrence of vowels fometimes the dic- 
tion chaps and gapes, is interrupted, lags and labours, 
(Turn vocalium concur/us : qui cum accitlii ; et inter fifth, et 
quafi labor at or alio) becaufe the uttering of two or, move 
vowels, when they come together, caufes fometimes an 
unpleafant, fometimes a painful, difteation of the mouth ; 

" P atria eft"- " pulchra oraticne atla omnia often tare." — 

That elegant author, liberates, fo cautioufly avoided 
this concurrence of vowels between words, that in him 
you fhall hardly find an* inftance of it. His fcholars, in- 
deed, Theopompus especially, were cenfured both by 
Demetrius Phalerius and by QuincYiIian, for being too. 
nice and fcrupulous in this refpeel ; for fometimes the 
Synalepha has a wonderful effect in giving foftnefs, and 
fometimes grandeur, to an expreilion ; and therefore Ci- 
cero aad Demofthenes, far from delpifmg, made a mo- 
derate ufe of it in their difcourfes, frill testifying, how- 
ever, a general regard to what this rule enjoins. 

We who walk, as it were, in foreign ground, mud ufe 
extraordinary caution in this refpecl, or incur the impu- 
tation of a loofe and negligent ftyle. Such was the cau- 
tion anciently ufed to obviate the meeting of a plurality 
of vowels in any manner, that when in the fame word 
feveral concurred, either one of them was cut off by 
an apoftrophe, or elfe oae of them, viz. the final, was 
Tupplanted by a confonant ; of which it will be worth 
^b.^s to remark feveral inilanct v s> 



224 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

I. One V oiv el dropped. 

1. Die hr diet. As, " Libra die fomnique pares ubi 
facerit lions, " Virg. V Vides jam die multum ef^e. ,, 
Plant. " Sed raecTn poft caftra &." il^/zi/. "» Ad pri- 
mi radios interitura 'die." Aufon. " Et jam *//> vefper 
erat." Sail. " Decirna parte die." Id. 

2. Facie for faciei, ih ufed both in the gen. and dat» 
cafes by Lucilius, quoted by A. Gellius, 9, 14. 

3. Fide for fad. " Utque jidc pignus dextras utri- 
fifqtfe popofeit." Gv. " Co'nftantis juvenem fde." 
Hon 3, 7. See both Bentleys on this text, and the old- 
commentator in Cruquius. 

4. Dii for did. Aulus Gellius fays, that, according 
to this, Virgil, JEn. 1, 640, wrote, " Mnnera ketitiarti- 
que di\," not Dei quafi Bacchi. Gellius is not fmgular 
in this, for neither Servius nor Pierius difpute it. Plau- 
tus, hi Merc, has dii for did. 

5. Famii and fami, and fcttneu for fdmiet, from fames, 
when ufed, as formerly, in the fifth declenfion. A. Gell. 
an d his C mmehtt lio r. 

6. Per nidi, progenii, tudurti, fpecii, ddi, facTi, both in tile 
gen. and dat. in (lead of \pern:ciei, progenia, lye. A. Gell, 

2. Ike Jinal Vowel fupplaced ly a Con fen ant. 

1 . Fades for facid. Sic enim pleraque at as veterum deck* 
ndi)it : hac fades, hums fades. A. Gell. 

2. Dies for did. Id. Who quotes from Ennuis, 
" Poitrems longinqua cites confecerit tEtas." Cicero is- 
alib faid to have ufed dies Joy did. "Verba fun t has c 
Marci Tullf, 'Equiles vera daiuros illius dies p anas." Id. 
The fame Gellius like wife tells us (nor is he lingular 
heie) that Virgil, in the verfe above cited, wrote, not 
Libra die, &t. but Libra dies fommque, &c. 

But, by this., rale, a collificn of confonants miifl be- 
no lefs. generally avoided than a concurring^ of vowels, 
Ceterum cbnfonanies qicoque, eeeque tradpue, qua funt afperiotes, 
in comm'ffura vcrbcrum rjxaniur. This is Quinctilian's ob- 
iedliori to a plurality of confonants. When many of 
them come together, they bring the teeth and lips into 
t^o long a contact-, and produce a mumbling, or a hi£ 
fing, or a chatteringy-ora rumbling noife ; as, Ars Jlitr, 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 225 

diorum ; Sextus Rjfcius } Rex Xerxes; Error Rcmuli ; 
Bomb ax * 

Some confonants are rougher and more difficult to be 

pronounced than others ; we mu& take fpecial care that 
they do not Crowd together ; fuch as c, d, f, g, I:, 1, n, 
q, f, t, x. Thcfe, it has been obferved, are the lad :on- 
icnants children learn to articulate. They depend ?ach 
on a feparate action of the tongue ; of cburfe, when fe- 
veral of them meet, the movements cf the tongue in at*» 
tcring mud be more complicate and difficult. 

So careful were the Latins in old time to avoid the 
collifion of harih -founding confonants, that, liki the 
Greeks, they would fometimes drop the final conf>nant 
of a former word, that it might not impinge agairft the 
initial one of the word following. Thus we hav< feen 
in Ennius, doclu y for dq&us before JldeSs ; in Lucetius, 
cquoru for equorum before dudhca. Fdr ferenus fuit etdignus 
loco, Lucilius wrote fermu fuit et di gnu loco. For diet banc, 
Cato would fay die banc. And for et pojl P interroga- 
tively, quafi, Quid turn poftea ? we are told be Em- 
peror Auguflus ufed to fay E' po P Hence the words 
belli gerare for helium gertre ; pomerldiamus for pojlmerdianus ; 
po* meridiem for poji meridiem ; pe 3 meridiem tor per wriditm ,- 
pbtin' iov potifne, &c. tsf'cl Hence alfo it is, nanely, to 
avoid a collifion of confonants, that in the ufe £ thefe 
prepofitions, a, ab e, ex, we fet a, e, before a cafonant, 
ab, ex, before a vowel, as a manu, e manu ; ab ors,°x ore. 

Winkelman, in his Hiflory of Art, quoted by the 
Phyfiognomiil Lavater, charges the northerr nations 
with thefe defects, that they abound with monxyllables, 
and are clogged with confonants, the connedrig and . 
pronouncing of which is fometimes impoffibleta other 
nations* 



Rule 17. 

" T N general a redundancy of fhort word muli be 

X avoided." 

Etiam monofyllaba, ft plura funt, fays Quinclian, male 
continuabuntur ; quia necejfe ejl, compofitio miutis aufulis con- 
cifa fubfiiltet. ldeoque etiam brevium verborumic nominum . 



226 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

vltanda conlhiuatio. Elfewhere, he compares the found of 
many fhort words to the noife of a child's rattle, and 
condemns the frequent ufe of them ; Ne, quod nunc maxi- 
mum vitiufH eji, brevlum context* refukcnt [f) llabaej ac fonum 
reddant pene pusriUum crepitaculorum. 

But the occafion of this rule, and its exceptions, have 
been very fully enlarged on, and exemplified, in former 
pag?s, particularly under rule 15, and therefore it may 
futxKe here to give one inftance more of the awkward ef- 
fect of many ihort words unfeafonably heaped together, 

u Do, quod vis, et me vicluique volenique remitfco*" 

Aln. 12, %l$. : 

Tiis verlc, notwithflanding its author, is a bad one.* 



Rule 18. 



" T J general a redundancy of long words muft be a- 
JL voided." 

TM reafon of this rule may be inferred from what 
has ben faid in commendation of long words, that they 
give height, and enftamp grandeur and folemnity on a 
difcoufe, when feafonably ufed for that piirpofe. But 
fuch aftyle does not fuit all fubjecls ; and when it is in- 
judiciafly applied, the compofition is fpoiled by a vain 
pompo'ty, an idle afFeclation of magnificence, which is 
no moj than bombail ; and which, retarding the ex- 
preffion^ is ill-qualified to quicken and give life to thofe 
ideas Milch th'e fubj eel-matter fhculd iuggeft. Great 
and fwding words unfeafonably applied, mine not like 
ftars, bit glare like meteors, as Longinus fays, when he 
charges Alexander's tutor, Calliilhenes, with being too 
eager in;he purfuit of elegance. Such terms, ill-appli- 
ed, are i)t fpirit but froth. Tranfgrefling the preceding 
rule, welncur the cenfure of impotence ; and we may 
by a neglcl of this become guilty of what the Grecian 
critic abta mentioned ftyles the moil unpardonable of- 
fence a v\tter can be guilty of, that of foaring above the 
fu bj eel. orced and unnatural images indeed, vain fan- 
cies, and a aife elation of working on the paffions, where 
pathos is n neceffary, are the objecls of his cenfure, and 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 227 

not merely the vsrbum dictum, whether it be of few fyl- 
lables or of many. But in treating, de tyrocinio fcribend't, 

of the very elementary part of writing, it is requifite, by 
fuch rules as this and the foregoing, to caution boys 
againft that abufe of language, which is in truth the be- 
ginning of, and, as young ideas moot, may betray un- 
practiied and unwary writers into, thofe very imperfec- 
tions, of which Calliithenes and others cenfured by Lon- 
ginus were guilty, namely, impotence and bombaft. — 
The bufmefs of a boy at firit is rather to exprefs, than 
in his own mind to beget, ideas, they being firft fuggeft- 
ed to him. And knowing that words are the vehicles 
of thoughts, he mud learn to convey the latter by words 
convenient for them, here laying the foundation of good 
writing, and remembering always, that whether the cha- 
riot be too heavy for the wheels, or the wheels for the 
chariot, in both cafes the machine is iil-conrtru&ed. 

The exceptions to this rule, viz. when long words 
may abound to advantage may be found among the ex- 
ceptions to rules the nineteenth and twentieth, here foL- 
lowing. 



Rule 19. 

" IN general there mult be no redundancy of long 
X meaiures." 

Rule 20. 

" IN general there mult be no redundancy of fhort 
meafures." 

The long meaiure and the fhort have each their pro- 
per ufe and beauty ; and it being on certain occailons 
only that the one is vaftly preferable to the other, it 
follows, that oh {\xca occasions only the one mould fen- 
iibl/ and glaringly abound above the other. We muft 
confider what the fubjecl requires ; for a mifapplied con- 
tinuity bf long times or fhort may be death to a com- 
position. When the diction mould be quick and lively, 
long meafures will appear dull and heavy ; when the to- 
jpic requires ftrong expreiEons, and terms of weight and 



2^3 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

. gravity, then by the ufe of fhort fyllables, If they are. 
many, the ftyle becomes weak, fluttering and haity. 
Utrumque [tempus longum et breve] locis utile. Nam et 
tllud^ubi opus ejt velocitatc, tardum et fegne ; et hoc, ubi pondus 
ixigttUTf praceps ac refultani merit o abtnnatur. Qjiirtff, 



'EXCEPTION'S TO RULE IOv 

To exprefs flow and majeftic movements, -great 
ftrength, awkard attitudes, difficulty, difdain, occaiions 
of delay, &c. long words and long meafures are judici- 
ously fufFered to abound., 

i. The flate and majefty of the qu^en of heaven arc 
finely ftruck off by Virgil in thofe few words abounding 
in lona fyllables, of which eight are contiguous ; 

*^\il ego, q-tra divom incedo regina?" JEn. i. 

Taubmann, admiring this pafTage, fays' :t is dlvina tutn 
'verborum turn pedum ccmpofitiOy arte fumma et judtcio facia. 

2. The immenfe bulk of the'eeflus of Eryx, the huge 
jTrength of King iEncas in -"wielding; fuch a mafs, and 
withal the exertion neceffary even in JEneas to do that, 
are thus exhibited by the fame jpozt,[JEn. 5 : 

" Magnanimufque Anchifiades et'nondus et ipfa. 

" Hue illuc vinclorum immenfa volumina verfat :'* 
where the length of the period (for this is but one claufe) 
as well as M the words and meafures, all ferve to raife 
fhe description. 

3. Behold the cliimiy, unweildly ' geftures of the Cy- 
clops labouring at Vulcan's forge ; Georg. 4. 

- c ;Illi inter feie magna vi brjehia toll'unt." 
•4, In one long word, placed too where it ought to be, 
in the cadence, Cicero reprefents the flow proceedings of 
. an. ill-equipped jfeet ; 

" Evolarat jam e confpeclu fere iugiens quaclriremir.,*' 
(thus f^r all is fwift and rapid, as it mould be, but) 
f* cum eiiam tunc cetera naves in /ho loco •' moliebantur." In 



i err cm. 



5. And tlms he afloni flies us with the vail and inex- 
pugnable firmnefs with which the brazen flattie of Her- 
lules in Agrigentum withftood the aflaults of a lawlefs- 
Impious rabble, who attempted to deftroy it ; 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 249 

" Poftea convulfis rcpagulis, effraftifque valvis, demo- 

liri fignum ac veclibas labefactare conantur. Hora 

ampliusjam in demciiendo figno pennulti homines mo- 
liebantur. Illud interea nulla lababat ex parte : cum 
alii veclibus fubjec'tis conarentur commovere ; alii deli- 
gaturn omnibus membris rapere ad fe funibus." lb. 

The final cadence, rapere ad fe funibus, including the 
1a ft fe ven fyllables, and reckoning the fynalepha as one, 

is a Small Ionic and a Dactyl u o u u,in which 

the fhort xneafures predominate, and fortunately ; for 
here we fee the intemperate lpite with which thefe rebel 
flaves were at laft actuated, after fo many vain and dis- 
appointed efforts to -fulfil their wicked purpofes. 

6. In a beautiful manner ufmg long words he (Cice- 
ro) defcribes the ftorms and commotions of the ftate, 
and other troubles by which his wifnes were oppofed, 
and himfelf debarred from ftudy and retirement : 

" Quam fpem cogitationum et confiliorum meorum 
cum graves communium temporum, turn varii noftri ca- 
fus fellerunt. Nam qui locus quktis et tranquillitatis 
p 1 iflimus fore videbatur, in eo maxima moles mokjliarum 
€i titrluhniiJTima tempeflates exjliterunt" De Orat. 

The whole paffage here is well and feafonably fuppli- 
ed with "long words ; but the laft fentenee is atfmirable 
beyond compare. V. Rule 21, on this, fentenee. 

7. Young Chcerea, upon the ftage, in his unbounded 
admiration of one fair face, affecls to difdain all other 
women in the world be fides : to exprefs which Te- 
rence has employed long words ; 

-" O faciem pulchram ! Deieo omnes dehinc ex am- 
mo mulieres : 
Tadet quotid'* tutor rim harum formarum" Eun. 

8. Cicero infifts that the cumbrous equipage with 
which Milo was attended, when he left Rome, proves that 
Milo had no intentions of attacking Clodius then on the 
way. Now mark the defcription of his equipage ; 

" Cum hie inddiator, qui iter illad ad csedem faciei^ 
dam apparaiTet ; cum" uxore vcheretur in rheda, penu- 
latus, vulgi magno impedimento, ac muliebri et delidato 
ancillarum puerorumque comitatu." 

Who, that has ever fo little, ear, but is fenfvble, on the 
bare reading of this paffage, that Cicero ourpofedly em- 
W 



*f6 AN INTRODUCTION 'fO 

ployed long words ; and that he crowded them one upon 
another, the better to exprefs the multitude of attendants, 
men, women and children, who were more likely to en- 
cumber, than to be of fervice in a combat ? Monf. Roll'm, 
I* elks Let ires. 

EXCEPTIONS TO RULE 20. 

To exprefs hurry, fpeed, paffion of any kind, -impa- 
tience, vehement indignation, great joy, &c. fhort words 
and fhort meafures do properly abound. 

1. In Virgil, to whom we are ftill indebted for beau- 
tiful conceptions and exprefllons on every occafion, and 
whofe beauties fhine with new luftre, as often as we caft 
our admiring eyes upon them, Jupiter thus difpatches 
his mefTenger to Carthage on an errand, which was to be 
communicated immediately to the Trojan Prince there ; 
JEn. 4. 

" Vade, age, nate, voca Zephyros, et labere pennis." 
Thefe are winged words, which run as Mercury 
fhould fly ; the god haflened by the zephyrs, the man- 
date by Ihort meafures. 

2. By fhort meafures, how wonderfully, how delight- 
fully hjs the incomparable bard defcribed the velocity 
of his fleeds- ! J£n. 8. 

" Quadrupedante putrem fonitu quatit ungula cara- 
pum." 

3. And the rout of vanquished foes ! JEn. 11. 

* Prima fugit, domina amiHa, levis ala Camillas : 

Turbati fugiunt Rutuli : fugit acer Atinas : 

Disjeclique duces defolatique manipli 

Tuto petunt, et equis averfi ad masnia tendunt.' 

Nee quifquam inftantes Teucros letumque ferentes 

vSuftentare valet telis, aut Mere contra. 

Sed laxos referunt humeris languentibus arcus : 

Quadrupedumque putrem fonitu quatit unguia eam- 

pum. 
Volvitur ad muros caligine turbidus atra 
Pulvis." 

In this pa/Tage, where the rout feems for a moment 
to ceafe by the vain efforts of the Rutuli to withftand, 
where alio the force of the Trojans is moft fully exprcf- 
fed (Nee gujfyuam, &c.J there the Daftyls are for a while 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 251 

iifufeJ, and Spondees abound ; but the flight is inftant- 
1/ renewed, and with it the rapidity of the verfe. 

" The velocity of a faft-failing ihip is thus in fhort 
meafures defcribed by Cicero in his pleadings againft 
Verres ; 

" H<sc Centuripina navis erat incredibli celeritate ve- 

lis. Evolarat jam e confpectu fere fugiens quadrire- 

mis." 

5. And thus in ihort meafures by Seneca (Ep. 1, 99.) 
the flight of fatter-failing time ; 

" Refpice celeritafcem rapidiffimi temporis : cogita 
brcviia:em hujus fpatii, per quod citatiiTimi currimus." 

In thefe two paffages every thing is rapid ; for though 
the words are long, the fyllables are ihort ; and, as Monf, 
Roilin obferves, there is ;i choice of the very letters here, 
mod of which are fmooth and liquid ; Incredibili cehrkati 

Vtrfif, C^lerkatc^firapidJlJhra temporis. The final cadence 

in the former of thefe paiiagcs is that fo much admired 
of old, namely, a Dichoree, 

— O — 'J 

quadrumu ; that in the other is a Cretic and a Dactyl, 
which, the Dactyl being laft, is a quick meafure, and 
commended, as we have feen, by Quinctilian ; cita- 

itffvni currimus. 

6. It was indignation that called forth that hafty 
mandate from Queen Dido ; 

« Ite, 
" Ferte citi flammas ; date vela ; impellite remos." 

7. And the fuddennefs of her frenzy intermitting, 
that taught her in thefe fhort meafures fo abruptly to 
correct and interrogate herfelf ; 

" Quid loquor ; aut ubi fum ?" JEn. 4. 

8. Cicero, impatient of delay, and eager all at once to 
drive Catiline from Rome, in terms exactly meafured to 
the occafion, thus commands him into exile ; 

" Egredere ex urbe, Catilina : libera rempublicam 
metu ; in exilium, ii hanc vocem expectas, proficifcere." 



u-y y 



The cadence here is P^on Secundus, pro-fcifcere ; or it 

— o o — • O CJ 

may be meafured by two Dactyls, expec-tas, profclfcerc ; 



5 5 2 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

which, but on fome fuch occafion as thefe exceptions 
treat of, might be objected to ; but they are here alto- 
gether applicable, and beautiful. 

9. When, driven by the ahafhing eloquence of Cice- 
ro, Catiline had really left Rome, and by his exit had 
* elieved that city from impending ruin, with what a tu- 
mult of joy does the Conful (Ciccrc) congratulate his 
countrymen on their efcape i 

11 Tandem aliquando, Quirites, Lucium Catilinam, 
furentem audacia, fcelus anhelantem, peftem patriae ne- 
farie moiientem, vobis atque huic urbi ferrum flammam- 
que minitantem, ex urbe vel ejecimus, vel emifimus, vel 
ipfum egredientem verbis prefecuti fumus. Abiit, ex- 
ceffit, evafit, erupit : nulla jam pernicies a monftro illo 
atque prodigio msenibus iftis intra msenia comparabitur." 
2, In Cat. 

Here is alacrity in the very words ; no one can read 
them but with pleafure ; and this is the effect of thofe 
fprightly Dactyls, Pyrrhics and Trochees, which are fo 
beautifully difperfed throughout this truly elegant and- 
ch ar m i ng p a iTa g e . 

The cadence is an Amphibrac and a Dactyl, mani- 



o — O — 'J u 



a comparabitur, than which (not fit for general ufe) no 
cadence can be better qualified to exprefs an effufion- of 

joy- 



Rule 21. 



M r I ^HE laft fyllables of the foregoing word muft not 
JL be the fame as the firft fyllables of the word fol- 
lowing/' 

This is exactly Quinctilian r s rule, whofe words are, 
Videndum etiam, ne fyllaba verb't priaris ultima Jint prim* fe+ 
quentis. And by him the impropriety of like fyllables 
concurring is thus twice exemplified from Cicero ; 

" Res mihi invife <vife funt, Brute. 5 ' (Frag. Epif. 

" O fortunstam natam, me confule, Rcmam l ¥ (Car* 
mine, 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 253 

The fame objection lies againft this of Ovid, in his fa- 
ble of Daphne ; 

" Crura fieent fcntes." 

That fuch expreffions are faulty, our ears may readily 
enough inform us ; for in our ears they have the effect 
of ftammering. 

Several examples of this have been colle&ed by dif- 
ferent hands from Cicero. One paffage, however, char- 
ged with being faulty in this refpect, is in my opinion a 
fortunate tranfgreffion of the rule. It is a paffage which 
we have lately ventured to admire. 

m Nam qui locus, &c - « -in eo maximae mates molejlia* 
rum et turbulentiffimae tempeftatss exftiterunt." Orat. 
I, 2. 

Moles Molejliarum here hath given great offence to all 
the annotators ; bat it ftrikes me, that Cicero defignedly 
ufed this expreffion, maxima moks mokJliarum> and like wife 
this, turbulent'iffim* temptftates> the more ftrongly to inti- 
mate the difaiters he complained of. By reiterating the 
fame founds, he dwells on the fame idea, raifes it, and 
feems to magnify the mafs (moles) of thofe troubles and 
turmoils by which the times had been difturbed, and 
himfelf detained from enjoying that otto cum digmiaie 
which he had before fpoken of with fo much rapture. 

EXCEPTION. 

We are at liberty then to tranfgrefs this rule, when by 
fo doing we can imprefs more ftrongly an idea of that 
with which we would have the mind mo ft affected ; and 
fuch expreffions are peculiarly applicable and fortunate, 
when the fubjeel is any thing menftrous, deformed cr 
u gly> as in Cicero, moles molejliarum. 



Rule 22. 

" T\/T^^ words, which bear the fame quantity* 
JlV A which begin alike or end alike, or which have 
the fame characleriftic letter in declenfion or conjuga- 
tion, (many fuch words) may not come together." 

fl 



254 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

This likewife, in great meafure, is Quincldlian's rule -4 
Ilia quoque vitia funt ejujdem, loci, ft cadentiafi milder, etfimi- 
liter defwentia, et eodcm modo deciinata, r.ndta junganlur. He 
founds it on this good reafon, that the very beauties of 
language are irkiome, unlefs fupported by that of va- 
riety. Variety is forever requifite to gratify the human 
tatte ; and, unlefs this be duly maintained, the difcourfe 
not only becomes fulfome, by the lament is pervading it, 
but may fometimes be charged with affectation, which 
is worfe than a coarfe and inelegant ityle. Firtutes etiam 

if/a tadium pdri'aht, nifi gratia <varietatis adjuia. Q ration] s 

compjitio niji varla t/l, et ojfcndh Jundiiuditit) et affeaafwit de- 

jpir/jLtiditur. J a univerfum ax tan, Ji Jit necjf , duram po- 

iius et ajptram comj>qJttion&ri malim yp, quam tjftminatam d 
enervem. Quinct. Be the thoughts ever fo fine, their 
luitre will be tarniilved by fuch a ityle of writing as this 
rule condemns. 

EXAMPLES. 

I confefs myfelf at a lofs to exemplify this rule fo 
aptly as I wifh, it being more eafy to find virtues than 
faults of any kind in the choice volumes of antiquity ; 
and I would not feerri to carp, when I could not juaUy 
cenfure, by adducing paffages that are lefs applicable. 
Here" are a few initances, which May fcrve in feme de- 
gree to illuftrate the rule ; and, if they do it but imper- . 
feclly, the rule is evident, and may explain itfelf. 

1. " Sed quo fata trahunt, virlusfourajeguetur," 

Luc an. 

2. " A tide- avis* czterifjus templis % a teBis urlis, &i\ >9 

Ct'c. 
£. " His rccentibus hojlfis nyejlrtfqus domsjlicis periculis" 

Id. 
4. " Catiliiue profcalone omnia pat facia, illujlrata, opfref- 
fa, vindicate cjjc viaeatis." Id. 

In the firft of thefe examples, the long hiftmg of /ecu- 
ra fcqueiur is very unpleafant. In the oihers, too many 
words bear the fame cadence ; the iyllable is, and then 
the letter a, are repealed too often. Such a diction is 
apt to run away with the ear, and leave the mind unin- 
formed j like one who would fee Gurrick perform upon 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 255 

the flage, and was amufed, not with the rare talents of 
the comedian, but with^onnting how many times he 
walked acrofs the flage,™ nd how often Be faid and and 
the. 

5. This reiteration in the beginning of words is (till 
more oftenfive ; as, Judicium judiaim ; and jujti judicil 
jfunianiy cited, I think, by one or Qjiinctiiiar/s annota- 
tors to illuitrate Quinctilian's flricaire on inch expref- 
fions. 

6. " Nam quoad long i (lime potefl mens mea re/pi cere 
fpatium pneteriti tempori^" Cic. 

Mens mea is rather a treffafs on the rule ; but might 
have done pretty well, if rijpiccre fpatium had not follow- 
ed : two errors contiguous caft a kind of fullen light 
upon each other, and fo both become more glaring. 

7. We have already cenfured the crura fecehi fnites of 
Ovid ; and flill more cenfurable on the ikmh account is 
this of Ennius ; 

1 8. " Verbfjrum vir paucorum" 

9. The firft line of an Ode lately found in the Pala- 
tine Library at Rome, runs thus, 

" DrTcolor grandest -gravat uva rr.muni." 

This Ode, addreffed. " Ad Julium Flortim," and 
written in the fapphic metre, is by fome afcribed to Ho- 
race, as if it were the thirty-ninth of the firft book : 
another Ode, " Ad Librum $autn,f in the Alciac Me- 
tre,- and found at the fame place and time, they call the 
fortieth. But I nwft doubt, that gfdnVJht gravat could 
come from the tuneful pen of Horace : and fmce the 
former edition of this book was printed, I have learned, 
that a much more'* competent judge, the claffical Dr. 
Rofs, Eifhep of Exeter, was equally unwilling to im- 
pute either of thefe odes to Horacf . I have them writ- 
ten by his own hand on a blank leaf in R. Bendey's 
edition of Horace, with this following note of his Lord- 
ftiip's fubferibed ; " Has daas odas Horatio tributas et 
Romae in Bibliotheca.Palatina reconditas Cafpar Palla- 
vicini nuper detexit ; quas ut Horatii effe credam, vhc 
adduci poffim." This has fallen into my hands fmce 
his Lord/hip's deceafe ; which I am careful to add, left 
I mould feem to affect a correfpondence with him on the 
fubject of thefe odes. 



256 AN INTRODUCTION TO 

Longinus condemns an expreflion of this kind in He- 
rodotus, which, as I write to young fcholars, I will ex- 
hibit here in Roman ehara&ers, " Zefafees de tees thelaf 
fees" I mull fay, I admire this expreflion of the Greek 
Hiftorian, as being no bad reprefentation of the boiling 
and fermenting of agitated waters. If, however, it be 
faulty, the Greek only (hall not bear the blame ; it may 
be transferred into our own tongue, the Englifh verfion 
of thefe Greek words being, The feethingfea % or f the fa 
feethmv* 

EXCEPTION. 

The exception to this rule is as that to rule 21 : The 
fame founds are judicioufly returned upon the ear, be- 
caufe no lefs gratefully received by it, when thereby 
lively conceptions can be raifed, and the picture, as it 
were, of that which is defcribed or fpoken of, feems to 
pafs before the mind, and helps its contemplation. Such 
in my mind is the effeel of that expreffion in Herodotus* 

Zefafees de tees thelaffees j" 
and of that in Cicero, . 

" Moles mokfiiarum ;" 
and ftill more, 

u Maxima moles moUJlianm ct tvrluJentijjim* tempeflates ex- 
Jiterunt.» 

For the fame reafon, who does not admire that redun- 
dancy of vowels, efpecially of the vowel a t in 

u Galea aurea rubra ;" 
by which it was doubtlefs the very defign of the Poet to 
diftinguiih Turnus above his chofen attendants in their 
approaches to the hoftile town ; to diftinguifh him by his 
golden helmet, that helmet in the defcription being in a 
manner conspicuous to the eye ; 

- u Maculis quern Tbraciur allis 
" Portat equusy crlftaq ; tegit Galea aurea rubra" 
Macrobius (Saturnal. 1. y, c. 1) admires and cites this 
fame paffage as an inftance of the extraordinary elo- 
quence of Virgil, particularly of what he ftyles "fiecum 
tilud genus ckcuihnts" for which he tells us, Fronto was 
tnuch noted ; and by which, as he afterwards fays, is 
not to be underftood " jejuna Jicchas" (far be fach an im- 



THE MAKING OF LATIN. 

ptitation from him, who, in Macrobius's judgment, had 
not only all the eloquence of Cicero, but that too of the 
ten orators of Athens) but, if I underftand him rightly, 
that which is fimple and unlaboured, frugal but full, in 
which nothing, not even an epithet, is figurative or far- 
fetched, but every thing natural, perfectly 'appropriate, 
and even necelfary, but no more. £i Tenuis qaiddm etfic- 
cus et fobrlus amat qwcindatn dicendi frugdhtattm/* Lake trr: 
fair one in Horace, fuch a ftyle isjtmphx mundiinr: fuch 
here is the plain but pertinent portraiture of the Rutu- 
lian Warrior, not gaudy but magnificent : his is not the 
head-piece of Paris ; it is the helmet of Turnus, and it 
is the helmet of a king. 



A piece of advice, I meaned to cfler at the conclafion 
of the Poitfcript to Rule 15, but then fuffered to flip 
my memory, I may fubjoin here, viz. That young fcho- 
lars, as foon as they have learned the Latin Profodia, do 
ican cadences in profe writers with as much preciiion 
and nicety as they commonly do verfes in Virgil and 
Horace. Nothing than this will more exactly form their 
ear to the genuine mufic of the Latin tongue : and be- 
ing thus accuftomed to take particular notice of the ar- 
rangement of words, the beauties of an author will be- 
come more ftriking to them, and themfelves better qua- 
lified to imitate the fame. 



THE END. 



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